Twelfth Night (Caro Cruz, Laura Caram, Sophia Guimaraes, Angie Menendez)

Who is the author of Twelfth Night? William Shakespeare
Who was William Shakespeare? English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world’s greatest dramatist
What is the Globe Theater? A theater in London built in 1599 by Shakespeare’s playing company, the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, on land owned by Thomas Brend and inherited by his son, Nicholas Brend and random Sir Matthew Brend, and was destroyed by fire on 29 June 1613. – burnt down in 1613 during the performance of Henry VIII in which a cannon shot ignited the thatched roof of the gallery – Rebuilt in 1614 – open to the elements, exposed to natural elements-most plays performed during the afternoon/daylight – church did not approve of theatres-considered bad influence- available to all audiences and budgets (cheap tickets “groundlings,” more expensive tickets had seats and better acoustics)- interactive audiences (eat, drink, and express opinion during performances, interacted with actors)- only male actors- little props-dependent on language effectiveness
What did the globe theater look like? – a large circular structure, three stories high – open air theatre- there was a roof around the circumference which covered the seating area- the Pit was the area located around the stage, had no seatings, for the commoners (groundlings)
Is the Globe Theater still around? Yes- the original was burned down, but the second one was rebuilt in 1614, which is still standing today
How many people did the Globe Theater hold in the past? By 1600 London theatres, like the Globe, could take up to 3000 people for the most popular plays.
Viola A shipwrecked young woman who disguises herself as “Cesario”
Sebastian Viola’s twin brother
Duke Orsino Duke of Illyria
Olivia A wealthy countess
Malvolio Steward in Olivia’s household
Maria Olivia’s gentlewoman
Sir Toby Belch Olivia’s uncle
Sir Andrew Aguecheek Friend of Sir Toby
Feste Olivia’s servant, a jester
Fabian A servant in Olivia’s household
Antonio A sea captain and friend to Sebastian
Valentine and Curio Gentlemen attending on the Duke
Setting of Twelfth Night Illyria, sometime between 1600-1601- exotic setting is very important to the play’s romantic themes and atmosphere
Main Themes 1. Gender – VIola cross dresses as her twin brother Sebastian- this enables her to fulfill usually male roles such as:+ acting as a messenger between Orsino and Olivia+ being Orsino’s confidant + the play discusses gender identity and attraction2. Metatheater – the idea of a “play within a play.” Viola is “playing” the character of Cesario while also playing Viola in the same play.
Other Themes 1. Love 2. Appearance vs. Reality – Mistaken identities, disguises and deception 3. Order vs. Disorder – disorder is a threat to society. A happy, peaceful existence is based on social order.
What are the five different types of love Shakespeare depicts in the novel? 1. Sentimental: Orsino loves Olivia in a self-conscious way, not of fulfillment2. Love of Friends: Toby and Andrew’s relationship (Toby will claim to love Andrew but it is really his money he loves)3. Love of Family: Viola and Sebastian4. Self-love: Malvolio thinks he loves Olivia but he really only loves himself5. Romantic love: the marriages at the end of the play will be on real love
Main Symbols – Rings: symbol of love- Twelfth Night: the night of the 12th night after Christmas (The Epiphany)- Music: For Orsino, music symbolizes love. For Feste, it means expression of truth – Malvolio’s chain: symbolizes his position in Olivia’s household. He ranks as a high level servant.
Describe the love triangle within the play. Viola alias Cesario (dressed up as a boy)- falls in love with OrsinoOrsino (Duke of Illyria, Viola’s boss)- is in love with Olivia Olivia (morning her dead brother)- falls in love with with Cesario (=Viola)
Act 1, Scene 1 At his court, Orsino, sick with love for Lady Olivia, learns from his messenger that she is grieving her dead brother and refuses to be seen for seven years.
Act 1, Scene 2 On the Adriatic sea coast, Viola, who has been saved from a shipwreck in which her brother may have drowned, hears about Orsino and Olivia. She wishes to join Olivia’s household, but is told that Olivia will admit no one into her presence. Viola decides to disguise herself as a boy so that she can join Orsino’s male retinue.
Act 1, Scene 3 At the estate of Lady Olivia, Sir Toby Belch, Olivia’s linesman and uncle, has brought in Sir Andrew Aguecheek to be her suitor. Maria, Olivia’s lady-in-waiting, says that Andrew is a fool, and Andrew himself doubts his ability to win Olivia, but Toby encourages him to woo her.
Act 1, Scene 4 At Orsino’s court, Viola disguised as a page and calling herself Cesario, has gained the trust of Orsino, who decides to send her to woo Olivia for him. Viola confides to the audience that she loves Orsino herself.
Act 1, Scene 5 Viola, in her disguise as Cesario, appears at Olivia’s estate. Olivia allows Cesario to speak with her privately about Orsino’s love. As Cesario presents Orsino’s love-suit, Olivia falls in love with Cesario. She sends her steward Malvolio, after Cesario with a ring.
Act 2, Scene 1 A young gentleman named Sebastian, who has recently been saved from a shipwreck in which his sister has been lost, sets off for Orsino’s court. Antonio, the sailor who saved him, follows him, even though Antonio risks his own life to do so.
Act 2, Scene 2 Malvolio finds the disguised Viola and “returns” the ring. Viola, alone, realizes that Olivia has fallen in love with Cesario and understands that Orsino, Olivia, and Viola,Cesario are now in a love triangle that she is helpless to resolve.
Act 2, Scene 3 At Olivia’s estate, Toby, Andrew, and the Fool (Feste) hold a late night party. Maria comes in to quiet them, followed by Malvolio, who orders them to behave or be dismissed from the house. In retaliation, Maria plots to trap Malvolio with a forged letter that will persuade him that Olivia loves him.
Act 2, Scene 4 Orsino asks for a song to relieve his love-longing. In conversation about the capacities for love in men and in women, Viola expresses her love for Orsino through a story about “Cesario’s sister.” Orsino becomes curious about this sister’s fate, but then turns back to his own longings and sends Cesario once again to visit Olivia.
Act 2, Scene 5 Maria lays her trap for Malvolio by placing her forged letter in his path. From their hiding place, Toby, Andrew, and Fabian observe Malvolio’s delight in discovering the love letter. Malvolio promises to obey the letter: to smile, to put on yellow stockings cross-garnered, and to be haughty to Sir Toby. Delighted with their success, Maria and the others prepare to enjoy Malvolio’s downfall.
Act 3, Scene 1 Viola (as Cesario), on her way to see Olivia, encounters first the Fool and then Sir Toby and Sir Andrew. Olivia, meeting Cesario, sends the others away and declares her love. Cesario, however, tells Olivia that she cannot possibly love her back and that she pities her.
Act 3, Scene 2 Sir Andrew, convinced that Olivia will never love him, threatens to leave. Sir Toby persuades him that h can win her love if he challenges Cesario to a duel. Sir Andrew goes off to prepare a letter for Cesario. Maria enters to say that Malvolio has followed every point in the letter and is about to incur disaster when he appears before Olivia.
Act 3, Scene 3 Antonio, having followed Sebastian, explains the incident in his past that keeps him from safely venturing into the streets of Orsino’s city. Giving his money to Sebastian, Antonio sets off to their inn while Sebastian goes off to see the sights.
Act 3, Scene 4 Malvolio, dressed ridiculously and smiling grotesquely, appears before an astonished Olivia. Thinking him insane, she puts him in the care of Sir Toby, who decides to treat him as a madman by having him bound and put in a dark room. Toby also decides to deliver Sir Andrew’s challenge to Cesario in person in order to force the two of them into a duel. Terrified, they prepare to fight at that moment, Antonio enters, thinks that Cesario is Sebastian, and comes to his defense. Antonio is immediately arrested by Orsino’s officers. Since he is sure that Viola is Sebastian, Antonio is bitter about the apparent denial of their friendship. Viola is herself delighted by Antonio’s angry words because, since he called her Sebastian, there is hope that her brother may in fact be alive.
Act 4, Scene 1 the Fool encounters Sebastian, whom he mistakes for Cesario. When Sir Andrew and Sir Toby attack Sebastian, the Fool fetches Olivia, who again declares her love—this time to a delighted Sebastian.
Act 4, Scene 2 Under directions from Sir Toby, the Fool disguises himself as a parish and visits the imprisoned Malvolio. In his own person, the Fool agrees to fetch pen, paper, and a candle for the supposed madman.
Act 4, Scene 3 While Sebastian is sure that neither he nor Olivia is insane, he is amazed by the wonder of his new situation. When Olivia asks him to enter into a formal betrothal with her, he readily agrees.
Act 5, Scene 1 Orsino, at Olivia’s estate, sends the Fool to bring Olivia to him. Antonio is brought in by officers and he tells the incredulous Orsino about Cesario’s treacherous behavior. At Olivia’s entrance, Orsino expresses his anger that Cesario has become Olivia’s darling. Cesario’s expressions of love for Orsino lead Olivia to send for the “holy father,” who confirms Olivia’s claim that she is formally betrothed to Cesario. Sir Andrew and Sir Toby enter with bloody heads, which they blame on Cesario. Sebastian’s entry at this moment untangles a series of knots: Sebastian addresses Olivia with love, greets Antonio warmly, and recognizes Cesario as the image of himself. When Cesario admits to being Sebastian’s sister Viola Orsino asks Viola to become his wife. On the day that Sebastian marries Olivia, Viola will marry Orsino.
Which scene is the climax of the play? Act 3, Scene 4
Explain: “If the music be the food of love, play on, Give me excess of it that, surfeiting, The appetite may sicken and so die…” Orsino asks for the musicians to give him so much musical love—food that he will overdose (“surfeit”) and cease to desire love any longer. Through these words, Shakespeare introduces the image of love as something unwanted, something that comes upon people unexpectedly and that is not easily avoided.
Explain: “We men may say more, swear more, but indeed, Our shows are more than will, for still we prove Much in our vows, but little in our love.” Viola, disguised as Cesario, discusses with Orsino the different ways in which men and women love. At the end of his story about his “sister,” Cesario suggests that even though men may express their love more emphatically than women, men will not necessarily be faithful to their partner or consistent in their affection.
Explain: “…This is a practice As full of labor as a wise man’s art, For folly, that he wisely shows is fit, But wise men, folly-fall’n, quite taint their wit.” Viola remarks that Feste’s witticism requires a great deal of intelligence and skill, and is comparable to the work of a scholar or wise man. She suggests that cleverly-placed foolishness reinforces one’s claim to wisdom, whereas wise and prudent men who act foolishly do permanent damage to their reputation.
Explain: “But as well? Then you are mad, indeed if you be no better in your wits than a fool.” Feste is speaking to Malvolio, who has been locked away in prison for his erratic behavior, which has been construed as madness. Feste is using Malvolio’s logic against him. This lien suggests that the distinction between wisdom, foolishness, and madness is quite fluid.
Explain: “Disguise, I see thou art a wickedness, Wherein the pregnant enemy does much.” Viola first become aware of Olivia’s newfound affection for Cesario and laments the unintended consequences of her disguise. Viola decides that the use of deception is a convenient vehicle for evil influences. She also suggests that women in general are more susceptible to deceptions. It marks the first time a character openly rebukes disguise and deception as a malevolent force, capable of misleading and causing inadvertent damage.
Explain: “Well, I’ll put it on and I will dissembled myself in’t; and I would I were the first that ever dissembled in such a gown.” Feste is asked by Sir Toby to dress up as a priest in order to fool Malvolio, now imprisoned as a madman. Feste’s disguise as priest is integral to a mock-exorcism that Sir Toby wishes to orchestrate. Feste makes a rather incisive observation, pointing to other priests who don the gowns of the office but are only pretending or “dissembling” to play the part. Shakespeare uses this pun to satirize the church, wherein unscrupulous and deceptive priests can uphold their authority by merely wearing the proper garments.
Why is Antonio arrested in Act 3, scene 4 when he is found in Illyria? For fighting and fighting in a past naval battle against Illyria from Orsino
Sir Topaz in Act 4, scene 2 is really what character in disguise? Feste
Which of the following characters is the only one who does NOT love Olivia at some point in the play? – Duke Orsino- Malvolio- Sebastian – Fabian Fabian
Why does Olivia start allowing Duke Orsino’s messenger (Viola/Cesario) to visit her often? She falls in love with the Viola/Cesario, and she wants him to return
Why does Sebastian beat up Sir Andrew in Act 4, scene 1? Because Sir Andrew attacks him first
What does Malvolio do in the play that concerns Olivia regarding his mental state? – He is rude to Maria and he is inappropriately flirtatious with Olivia- He wears yellow stockings that are cross-garnered – He smiles constantly and he kisses his own hand often- All of the above All of the above
In Maria’s forged letter, Malvolio is told that, Some are born ________, some achieve _________-ness, and some have ________-ness thrust upon them. Great
Which THREE characters do NOT live happily ever after at the conclusion of the play? Malvolio, Sir Andrew, and Antonio
When Viola is speaking with the Sea Captain in Act 1, Scene 2, she says, “My brother he is in Elysium.” Where does Viola think her brother is at this point in the play? She thinks that he is in Heaven
A specific extended metaphor is used to describe love in Act 1 Scene 1 of the play. What is it? Food
What THREE literary devices are being used in Act 1, scene 5 of the play when Duke Orsino says to Viola (disguised as Cesario), “Diana’s lip/is not more smooth and dubious; they small pipe/Is as the maiden’s organ. shrill and sound;/And all is semblative a woman’s part?” Dramatic Irony, Allusion, and Simile
When Viola/Cesario first comes to deliver Duke Orsino’s declarations of love to Olivia, she scolds Olivia by saying, “Lady, you are the cruell’st she alive/If you will lead these graces to the grave/And leave the world no copy.” What is Viola/Cesario saying to Olivia here? Lady, you are the cruelest woman alive if you will die without having a child to whom you can pass on your beauty.
What is the fake name that Sebastian uses when he is first rescued in order to protect his identity from possible thieves and ill-intentioned sailors? Roderigo
Where are Viola and Sebastian originally from? Messaline
What is the Fabian’s motivation for wanting to humiliate Malvolio, which ultimately causes Fabian to participate in the prank against him? – He is angry with Malvolio for telling him that he lacked culture and manners- He is angry with Malvolio for telling Olivia that he was bearbaiting
Match the following with the character it best describes:1. Will be revenged on everyone.2. Cannot love Cesario’s master. 3. Says: “If music be the food of love, play on!”4. Thinks that a good hanging prevents a bad marriage. 5. Believes that time must untangle misconceptions. A. OliviaB. FesteC. MalvolioD. OrsinoE. Viola 1. C2. A3. D4. B5. E
T or F: Sir Toby, Maria, and Fabian are trying to trick Malvolio into thinking he is mad. True
T or F: Antonio is spotted by Duke Orsino’s men, but he avoids being captured. False
T or F: Olivia knows that Sebastian is Cesario’s twin brother. False
T or F: Viola knows that her brother may still be alive. False
T or F: During the first half of the play, Orsino has stopped trying to win Olivia’s love because she is in love with Cesario. False
T or F: Feste has a quick witty argument with Sir Toby. False
T or F: Lady Olivia thinks Duke Orsino is better looking than Cesario. False
T or F: Feste thinks Lady Olivia is silly for continuing to mourn her brother since she thinks that her brother is in heaven. True
Analyze the quote: “This fellow is wise enough to play the fool; And to do that craves a kind of wit. He must observe their mood on whom he jests, The quality of persons, and the time, And, like the haggard, check at every feather That comes before his eye. This is a practice As full of labor as a wise man’s art; For folly that he wisely shows is fit, But wise men, folly-fall-n, quite taint their wit.”A. Who is speaking?B. Who is he/she speaking to?C. What is the context of the quotation? D. What is the significance? (identify a literary device and explain how it develops either character, plot or setting) A. ViolaB. She is speaking to herself and to the audience (aside).C. Viola concludes a battle of wits with Feste as he foes to fetch Lady Olivia. She notes that Feste is an intelligent fool and is therefore good at his job. D. Shakespeare uses a simile in this quotation: “And, like the haggard, check at every feather/That comes before his eye.” Viola compares Feste’s knowledge and skill as a fool to that of a trained Falcon or hawk. This demonstrates character development, because not only is VIola highly educated and working below Er social class, but she also recognizes and appreciates intelligence in others.
Analyze the quote: “If music be the food of love, play on; Give me excess of it, that, surfeiting, The appetite may sicken, and so die. That strain again! It had a dying fall: O, it came o’er my ear like the sweet sound That breathes upon a bank of violets, Stealing and giving odour! Enough; no more. ‘Tis not so sweet now as it was before. O spirit of love!…”A. Who is speaking?B. Who is he/she speaking to?C. What is the context of the quotation? D. What is the significance? (identify a literary device and explain how it develops either character, plot or setting) A. OrsinoB. Orsino is speaking to himself with Curio present. C. The play begins in Orsino’s palace as he delivers this soliloquy about his unrequited love for Olivia. D. Shakespeare uses an extended metaphor in this soliloquy: “If music be the food of love, play on,/Give me excess of it, that, surfeiting,/ the appetite may sicken, and so die.” Orsino compares love to food. This metaphor demonstrates that Orsino is an indulgent character who is hungry for Olivia’s love.

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