The Tempest context for mock

How was Jacobean’s society’s hierarchy reinforced? The Great Chain of Being
What was TGCoB? Divinely ordained hierarchical structure of society. God sits at the top.
But… Renaissance ideas began to reject TGCoB, calling for personal independence
Who was King? James I
When was the play written? 1610-11
When was the play performed at court? 1612
Where does the play place in the chronology of Shakespeare’s work? his last solo play, Prospero giving up his art is like metaphor for playwright saying farewell to theatre
women were… -subservient to men: husband, who they were property of, father, valued for marriages only-looked down upon if not virgins-meek, not intelligent, weak, pliant, etc.-education limited compared to men-little or no rights-role of wife and mother
Why were marriages arranged for people of high status? for social or political benefit without the participants involvement – Renai. audience likely to have seen Miranda and Ferdinand’s marriage as perfect
Miranda and Ferdinand’s marriage based on might have been based on Princess Elizabeth and Frederick V, whose courtship was happening whilst The Tempest was written, and brought together two countries, the play was performed at her weddingthe state relied on their match, like how Prospero relies on Miranda and Ferdinand’s relationship to get back the dukedom
What is divine right of kings? Belief that the monarch receives power directly from God, were the deputies of God on earth. Therefore he must not be challenged and treason is a sin against god
When were the first English colonies in the New World set up? 1607
How were views of the New World shaped? reports of the first nations people
How were First Nations people generally viewed? primitive, animalistic, gabbling, brutish
colonised helped the colonisers e.g. helping them to grow crops and trade
Who did the Patagonians of South America worship? setebos
What is an example of financial exploitation of the First Nations people by colonisers? an explorer, Martin Frobisher forcibly brought back Inuits and exhibited them as a fairground attraction before they quickly died of disease
What shipwreck report inspired the play? Thomas Gates’ ship, the sea venture, which was shipwrecked with his crew, colonists, on the Bermudas for 9 months in 1609, and were assumed dead. During the time on the island people attempted to rule and plots of murder against leaders arose. Pamphlets recorded the tale and a report was written, which Shakespeare likely heard/read reports and tales of, as he did with most of his influences
What was beginning at this time in Africa? European encroachment
What was beginning at this time in Ireland? renewed english attempts to gain control
What practice was already beginning in Africa by Europeans? slavery- natives were often enslaved/in service to colonisers
How were the Irish depicted by the English? savage and primitive, though their most basic difference was only language
Who was Montaigne? a significant philosopher of the french renaissance, known for popularising the essay format
Which Montaigne essay did Shakespeare use as a major source for the Tempest? Of Cannibals
What is “Of cannibals”? An essay by Montaigne likening the cannibalism of the tribal people of Brazil to the barbarianism in 16th century Europe. Also describes natives as cannibals and savages and argues that trying to tame them goes against nature.-Declared cannibals live in harmony with perfect religious/governmental system-Montaigne said cannibals are less savage than Europeans bc they had no words for ‘lying, avarice, envy’-Savages have no difference between rich/poor-Nobel Savage
What does Montaigne’s ‘Of the Cannibals’ provide? a romanticised view of the new world as an untouched paradise
What did ‘Of Cannibals’ inspire in the play? Gonzalo’s Utopia speech
A translation of Of Cannibals… spelt cannibals as ‘canibal’, an anagram of caliban, also might have been spelt like that then anyway
What is a magus? someone who understands the cosmos and humanity’s place in it through extensive study
In what ways Prospero like a ‘renaissance magus’? magic, learning, books, staff, robe, alchemy, astrology
What renaissance ideal does Prospero achieve? restoring order
How is Dr Faustus similar to Prospero? the morality of extreme power is questioned, both reliant on books, both withdrawn and isolated from the world- but at the end Prospero actually succeeds in ‘burning’ his books – a critic said that
Who was John Dee? famous mathematician, alchemist, magus, astronomer, astrologer, occult philosopher and adviser to Elizabeth I, possible inspiration for Prospero, alive 1527-1608/9also early advocate for overseas exploration despite how underdeveloped Britain’s oversea trade was
What did John Dee own? one of the largest libraries in england, which was destroyed and stolen from
What is ‘tempest’ an alchemical term for? the boiling of the alembic to remove the impurities and transform the base metal into gold
How can Prospero be seen as an alchemist? he removes the flaws in the evil characters
North Berwick trials King James tortured and killed over 70 “witches”
What did King James believe about witches? They had committed treason against him, created a ‘tempest’ that had nearly wrecked his ships. He was fascinated by/terrified of magic and persecuted them.
What was King James paranoid of? Usurpation -because of gunpowder plot of 1605, and he did not have a strong claim to the throne
Why is King James similar to Prospero? He was too preoccupied with learning at the expense of governing. Known as “scholar king”
How does The Tempest adhere to James I’s interest? focus on ‘abjuring’ magic at the end, focus on family
What were masques? multi-media dramatic entertainment, consisting of pantomime, dancing, dialogue, and song, often performed at court
Why did early 17th century masques focus on recapturing the beauty of the countryside? Because trade was growing, especially in London, and more people lived in congested cities, needed to remember beauty of rural life.
How is Prospero’s magic linked to the theatre? directs and controls the characters, creates illusions and masques
What Elizabethan act increased animosity against witchcraft and magic? (the) act against conjurations, enchantments and witchcraft, 1563
What was happening within the Royal Court when the play was being written? marriage arrangements being made for prince henry and princess elizabeth
Who was Rudolf II? holy roman emperor from 1575 – 1612
Why might Rudolf II have been an inspiration for Prospero’s character? he was obsessed with learning and the occult and a possibly irresponsible ruler as a result
Why might King James have been an inspiration for Prospero’s character? he was very interested in learning and knowledge
What was the Mirror of the Knighthood? a spanish romance about a noble who studies magic and has to escape to an enchanted island with his infant children after his wife dies
Alcohol and natives Given to them and used to control them
Genesis and the flood Links to the Tempest, an indication of control of God/Prospero
Gods and goddesses in festivals Popular in high and low society
Prospero’s “the rarer action is in virtue than in vengeance” echoes which essay? On Crueltie by Montaigne
‘Une TempĂȘte’ by Martiniquan – Martinique was a French colony in 1605- modern writer Aime Cesaire, Caliban is a defiant subject under European rule, while Ariel represents the mixed races more able to accept their limited oppression
Morality play An allegorical drama having personified abstract qualities as the main characters and presenting a lesson about good conduct and character, popular in the 15th and early 16th centuries-
Tragicomedy A happy ending but with solemn topics of danger and important figures and events being dealt with
Romantic elements supernatural elements, a long journey, theme of loss and recovery
magic and science little distinction between it
alchemy transmutation of base metals to gold
Renaissance era -Rebirth-Renewal of interest in classic antiquity-Era of great innovation-Came after idle Middle Ages-Humanism thrived-Pre dominant social philosophers + literary currents of the period grew-Assertion of personal independence-people saw the world in a new light-understood the world more-saw insignificant nature of people’s lives
Shakespeare and theme of usurpation appears much in his work
contemporary traveller’s tales about natives described them as half-man, half-beast
natives were made… to speak like colonists, like in Caliban’s ‘be not afeared’ speech
virtue prominent in religious teachings
the ending and magic Jacobean audience would want an ending where magic wasn’t triumphant

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