The Odyssey Final Test Study Guide

Odysseus grandson of Arcesius and Autolycus, son of Laertes and Anticleia, husband of Peneleope, father of Telemachus, king of Ithaca and the surrounding islands
Nestor son of Neleus, king of the Pyliands, father of Antilochus, Pisistratus, Thrasymedes, and others; the oldest of teh Achaean cheiftains
Penelope daughter of Icarius, wife of Odysseus, mother of Telemachus, queen of Ithaca
Arete queen of Phaeacia, wife of Alcinous, mother of Nausicaa
Eumaeus swineherd of Odysseus
Calypso goddess-nymph, daughter of Atlas, who makes her home on the island of Ogygia
Athena or Pallas Athena, goddess, daughter of Zeus, defender of the Achaeans. A patron of human ingenuity and resourcefulness, whether exemplified by handicrafts, such as spinning and weaving, or by skill in human relations, such as that possessed by Odysseus, her favorite among the Greeks
Eurycleia the old nurse of Odysseus and Telemachus, attendant of Penelope
Alcinous king of the Phaeacians, husband of Arete, father of Nausicaa
Circe goddess and enchantress of Aeaea, who changes men into swine
Telemachus grandson of Laertes and Anticleia, son of Odysseus and Penelope, heir to the throne of Ithaca
Poseidon god of the sea, son of Cronus and Rhea, younger brother of Zeus, father of Polyphemus, throughout “The Odyssey” an inveterate enemy of Odysseus
Melanthius son of Dolius, goatherd
Helen daughter of Zeus and Leda, wife of Menelaus, consort of Paris, her abuction
Hermes god, son of Zeus and Maia, messenger of the gods, giant-killer, and guide of dead souls to the underworld
Zeus king of the gods, son of Cronus and Rhea, brother and husband of Hera, father of the Olympians and many mortals too. His spheres include the sky and the weather, hospitality and the rights of guests and suppliants, the punishment of injustice, the sending of omens, and the governance of the universe, controlled to some extent by Fate as well
Melantho daughter of Dolius, maid of Penelope
Laertes son of Arcesius, husband of Anticleia, father of Odysseus
Demodocus blind singer of the Phaeacians
Eurymachus one of the two leading suitors, son of Polybus, killed b Odysseus
Menelaus son of Atreus, king of Lacedaemon, brother of Agamemnon, husband of Helen
Nausicaa daughter of Alcinous and Arete
Tiresias blind seer of Thebes, who retains his prophetic powers even in the underworld
Antinous son of Eupithes, one of the two leading suitors
Epic An extended narrative poem recounting actions, travels, adventures, and heroic episodes and written in a high style (with ennobled diction, for example). It may be written in hexameter verse, especially dactylic hexameter, and it may have twelve books or twenty four books.
Signs of a Classical Epic 1. The main character or protagonist is heroically larger than life, often the source and subject of legend or a national hero.2. The deeds of a hero are presented without favoritism, revealing his failings as well as his virtues.3. The action, often in battle, reveals the more-than-human strength of the heroes as they engage in acts of heroism and courage.4. The settings covers several nations, the whole world, or even the universe.5. The episodes, even though they may be fictional, provide an explanation for some of the circumstances or events in the history of a nation or people.6. The gods and lesser divinities play an active role in the outcome of actions.7. All of the various adventures form an organic whole, where each event relates in some way to the central theme.
Statement of Theme For example, “Arms and the man I sing”
Invocation to the Muse or Other Deity “Sing, goddess, of the wrath of Achilles”
Catalogs Items obtained by the hero on his travels
Histories and Descriptions of Significant Items For example, who made a sword or shield, how it was decorated, who owned it from generation to generation
Epic Simile A long simile where the image becomes an object of art in its own right as well as serving to clarify the subject
Patronymics Calling a son by his father’s name
Epic Hero The central of an epic; the __________ has larger-than-life powers. Achilles fulfills this role in “The Iliad,” Odysseus in “The Odyssey,” _______ are not perfect. They always seem to have an abundance of courage, a fighting spirit that endears them both to the reader and the gods.
Epithets Homer repeatedly describes many of his characters or objects in his story with the same phrase. This phrase is called an _______. ________ are common epic elements which allow the reader to easily identify the character or object. These stress a quality of what they are describing. The same character is often given several different ______.
Narrative Drift Homer is constantly interrupting the narration to elaborate on an aspect of what he is talking about; if he mentions a gift of wine, he will explain not only the history of the gift, but the history of the giver. He rarely introduces a character without alluding to that character’s genealogy and often follows this with an aside in the form of a story that is told with the same vividness as the main story.

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