The Iliad and The Odyssey Study Guide

What is culture? A group of organisms that share similar beliefs
What are epics? Long, narrative poems
Why do cultures develop epics? To get ideas and morals of the culture across
What is the theme of The Iliad? The wrath of Achilles
What is the theme of The Odyssey? Life is an adventure with hardships
How were epics originally told and when were they told? By oral tradition (spoken word) during the “Dark Age”
Who wrote The Iliad and The Odyssey? Homer
Was Homer 1 person? We don’t know for sure, he may have been, or he may have been multiple people
State the timeline of Greek Mythology The Trojan WarThe “Dark Age”The Phoenician alphabet started being used in GreeceThe epics of Troy and Odysseus are written downThe Odyssey is preserved in the Byzantine EmpireByzantium falls and the writing is moved to EuropeThe Odyssey is translated into english
What is medias res? When the story starts in the middle of things
What happens with the Muses in the story? The author prays to the Muse at the beginning of the story
Where does the journey normally happen in epics? All over the world
What can gods do? Change characters fate
What are Epithets? Descriptive phrase used to describe a characterEpi-the-thet
Who is the Odysseys central hero? Achilles
What is the war culture in The Iliad? War is very violent and unforgiving
What is xenia? Hospitality to strangers
What is the heroic code? Achieving honor
What is the role of the gods in The Iliad? The gods side with and help different armies
What characters visited Achilles? Odysseus, Ajax, and Phoenix
What are the Trojans referred to as? Horse Taming Trojans
What are the Greeks called? Bronze Coated Greeks
What tactics do gods and goddesses use to advance the story? Vision, turning themselves into others
What did Aphrodite give to Hera? Strangely ornamented band
What was the Muse goddess of? Arts
What was the Muse used to do? InspirationLay a foundation for the events of the storyReiterated the theme
Which kings stayed in Troy, and which kings left? Odysseus and Agamemnon stayed to give offerings to the gods, and Nestor and Menelaus left
How did Agamemnon die? His wife was cheating on him, and then Aegisthus (the man his wife was with) and his wife killed him. Then, Orestes (his son) killed Aegisthus.
Who first find Odysseus when he washes up in Scheria? Nausicaa
How does the queen of Scheria recognize Odysseus? She made his clothes
What does The Odyssey have that The Iliad doesn’t? Small themes
Who tells Odysseus about Circe? Eurylochus
How long was Odysseus with Circe? 1 year
Who runs away when Odysseus visits the dead? Ajax
Who are 3 characters Odysseus talks to in the Underworld? Agamemnon, his mother, and Achilles
How did Elpenor die? He got drunk and fell off the roof
What was the name of the 6 headed monster and the whirlpool? Scylla and Charybdis
How did Odysseus prove he had seen himself (when he was disguised)? He described the clothes he wore when he left for Troy
What was the name of the maid that found Odysseus’s scar? Eurycleia
Which suitor threw the stick at Odysseus? Ctesippus
What are the 4 types of archetypes? Situational, Symbolic, Character, and setting

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