The Crucible: Act Three Irony

Judge Danforth:”I have seen marvels in this court. I haveseen people choked before my eyes by spirits; I have seen them stuck by pinsand slashed by daggers.” Dramatic Irony: The characters think one thing to be true, but the audience knows something else to be trueThe reader already knows that all these irregular events are set up by Abigail. Though Danforth does not know this so he sides with her.
John Proctor:”In her life, sir, she have never lied. There are them that cannot sing, andthem that cannot weep – my wife cannot lie.” Situational Irony:John Proctor say that his wife can’t lie only for her to come out and lie about why Abigail was dismissed from their service.
Judge Danforth and Elizabeth Proctor: “…Why did you dismiss AbigailWilliams?””She – dissatisfied me….. And my husband. “ Dramatic Irony:We, the reader, already know that John Proctor committed adultery, and admitted it, but Elizabeth does not so she lies to protect him.
Abigail Williams:”Oh, Mary, this is a black art tochange your shape. No, I cannot, I cannot stop my mouth; it’s God’s work I do. “ Verbal Irony: Words seem to say one thing but mean something quite differentOppose to what Abigail is saying she is actually doing the exact opposite. Instead of doing God’s work she is doing the Devil’s work.
John Proctor:”A fire is burning! I hear the boot of Lucifer, I see his filthy face!” Verbal Irony:He is calling the people on court, who believe to be doing God’s work, Lucifer for not considering the the girls are lying.
Contentious causing or likely to cause an argument
contemptuous scornful
Deposition a witness’s testimony
Deferentially respectfully
Immaculate clean and free form
confounded confused
ipso facto by that very fact
Probity honesty, integrity
Pretense the act of pretending
Placidly calmly; complacently
Guile treacherous cunning, deceit
Sublime noble; majestic
apparition an unexpected sight; a ghost
indirect characterization Character traits are revealed through the character’s words, actions and appearance; other characters’ comments; other character’s reactions.Ex. “And how do you imagine to her to cause with such contemptuous riot?”
direct characterization The author simply tells the reader what a character is like. A playwright may use direct characterization in stage directions.Ex. “DANFORTH is a grave man in his sixties, of some humor and sophistication that does not,however interfere with an exact loyalty to his position and his cause”

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