Romeo and Juliet Test

When did Shakespeare live? 1564-1616
Who was Shakespeare and where did he live? An English poet and dramatist. Lived in Stratford-upon-Avon, England
How many plays did Shakespeare write? What types were they? 37: comedy, tragedy, and history
When was Romeo and Juliet written? 1595; (1595-1596)
What did Shakespeare base Romeo and Juliet on? The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet, a 3,000 lined poem written by Arthur Brooke
Who is Arthur Brooke? A poet who wrote The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet in 1562
What is Arthur Brooke’s poem based on? A well-known story of two feuding families in 13th century Italy. The Montecchi(Verona) and the Capellitti(Cremona)
Elizabethan theaters open-air round buildings seating 2,000-3,000. Some were under cover some were not.
Could poor people afford plays in Elizabethan times? Yes. The poorest people stood in the courtyard and were called groundlings, seats cost 1 penny about $.60 today.
Where did the richer people sit in Elizabethan theaters? In better seats under cover that cost 1 shilling (about $7 today)
Actors in Elizabethan plays All males. Boys whose voices had not changed would play female parts.
Props and scenery in Elizabethan plays Little to no scenery. Few props only to show necessary items (swords, vials, letter, knife)
Costumes in elizabethan plas Elaborate and always the Elizabethan style even if that is not when the play was set.
What type of acting? declamatory: Actors proclaimed their lines.
Christians view of the theater in Elizabethan times They would have nothing to do with the theater. In 1640’s, several years after Shakespeare died, the Puritans closed the theaters
How many sonnets did Shakespeare write? 154
Who was Petrarch? An Italian sonnet writer
When did Petrarch live? 1304-1374
Drama (Aristotle) imitated human action
Drama story told in action (dialogue) by actors who impersonate characters
Elizabethan From the time of Queen Elizabeth I
When was the Elizabethan time? 1558-1603
tragedy Drama which recalls an important and causally-related series of events in the life of a person of significance which ends in an unhappy catastrophe because of a tragic flaw.
conceited tragedy tragedy but witty and funny in places
comedy a lighter form of drama which ends happily and is intended to amuse.
stage directions instructions which tell how the play should be acted and staged
What is included in stage directions? setting, actions, characterization, and subtext
subtext An underlying meaning of the character’s linesthe character’s thoughts/emotions as he/she delivers the lines
set scenery/props which suggest the setting and characterization
chorus (Greek) in Greek drama, a group that took part in the play (with singing and dancing) and commented on the action.
chorus (Elizabethan) Usually, a single actor who recites prologue or epilogue, makes inter-act comments to link acts or to foreshadow events
foreshadowing hints/suggestions to the reader of what is to come in a story
foil a character who by contrast makes the characteristics of another character stand out
dramatic conventions various methods/devices in a plot that substitute for reality but we all “agree” to accept as real
aside dramatic convention in which lines delivers by one character to another character or the audience are not heard by the rest of the people on stage
soliloquy a dramatic convention in which a solo speech (monologue) is spoken by a character alone on stageusually, reveals the character’s true thoughts and feelings
meter a pattern of rhythm in poetry, based on 1. reoccurring pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables 2. the number of those patterns in a line
foot basic unit of meter, made up of stressed/unstressed syllable(s)
iambic pentameter 5 iambs per line (-/-/-/-/-/)(total of 10 beats per line)
blank verse poetry written in non-rhyming iambic pentameter
sonnet fixed-form of poetry of 14 lines in iambic pentameter, fixed rhyme scheme
Petrarchan sonnet octet (abbaabba) plus sestet (cdcdcd or cdecde or variation)
Shakespearean sonnet ababcdcdefefgg
situational irony outcome/situation is the opposite of what should logically happen
dramatic irony audience or character knows something another character doesn’t
verbal irony saying the opposite of what is meant in order to highlight the true meaning
pun a play on words
double entendre a statement that has two meanings, one of which is improper, crude, or suggestive
antithesis words and phrases put opposite each otherlove and hate, light and dark
oxymoron a type of antithesis in which two contradictory words are used together O loving hate sweet sorrow
Romeo Son of Lord and Lady Montague. Handsome, intelligent, impulsive. Passionate. All in when it comes to love. Good friend to Benvolio, Mercutio, and Friar Lawrence. Views love as something set up by fate.
Montague Romeo’s father. Capulet’s enemy. Shows concern for Romeo
Lady Montague Romeo’s mother. Dies of grief when she finds out Romeo is dead
Benvolio Good friend of Romeo also his cousin. Likes peace. Tries to stop quarrels in the streets. Doesn’t have a good grasp on love. Just tells Romeo to get over his lovesickness.
Abram Montague’s servant who fights with Samson and Gregory at the beginning of the play
Balthasar Romeo’s servant who tells Romeo that Juliet has died
Juliet Capulet’s daughter. 13 years old. Beautiful. Loyal to Romeo even when he kills her cousin. View of love is idealistic and wonderful. Had not thought about it much before Romeo
Lord Capulet Juliet’s father. Montague’s enemy. Loves Juliet and wants her to be happy so he tries to get her to marry Paris. Easily angered when he thinks he is not being respected. Love is a way to increase the important of your family
Lady Capulet Juliet’s mother. Not super important in Juliet’s life. The nurse does her job.
Nurse Juliet’s mother figure and closest friend and confidante. Very easily distracted. voluble. Views love as mainly being about the physical aspect
Tybalt Juliet’s fiery and hotheaded cousin who hates the Montagues with a deep passion. Great sword fighter
Peter The nurse’s servant
Second Capulet Capulet’s relative
Samson Capulet’s servant
Gregory Capulet’s servant
Escalus Prince Escalus, Prince of Verona. Related to both Paris and Mercutio. Wants peace
Count Paris Relative of the prince, wants to marry Juliet (her suitor)
Mercutio Witty and often vulgar friend of Romeo and relative of the prince. Loyal to Romeo (why he fought Tybalt). Views love as purely physical
Friar Lawrence Priest, Romeo’s friend. Marries Romeo and Juliet. views love as sacred, but also as a way to bring forth peace
Friar John a priest and a messenger who is delayed in delivering an urgent message to Romeo
Apothecary Makes potions Sells a potion of death to Romeo because he desperately needs the money
What did Shakespeare use in the play? Double entendre Iambic Pentameter Sonnets Puns OxymoronAntithesis aside Soliloquydramatic irony situational irony verbal irony
Double entendre in the play Juliet when talking to Friar Lawrence when Paris is there”I will say that I love him”
Sonnets in the play prologue
puns in the play Romeo and Mercurio about light
oxymorons in the play sweet sorrow
antitheses in the play love and hate
asides in the play Romeo at the party planning to touch Juliet’s hand
soliloquies in the play Juliet in the balcony sceneFrair Lawrence in the garden like thing
dramatic irony in the play Romeo thinks Juliet is dead but the audience knows she isn’t really dead
situational irony in the play Romeo goes to the party to admire Rosaline but ends up falling in love with Juliet
verbal irony in the play When Mercurio is dying and he says he only has a scratch but his wound is in fact fatal
Petrarchan Conventions for love 1. Courtly love for a beautiful, unattainable lady2. Love is excruciatingly painful3. The angelically beautiful and virtuous lady is cruel in rejecting the poet’s love4. Love is like a religion; practicing it makes the lover noble5. The “god” of love (Cupid) is unpredictable, powerful, and cruel6. the eyes are the windows to the soul7. Love usually begins at first sight8. The poet is subject to extremes of feeling and internal conflict-war within self9. Life is short, but art lasts long. The poetry is an ultimate expression of love because it will outlive the poet and make the loved one immortal.

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