ROMEO AND JULIET STUDY

In which town is the play set? In what country do you suppose this town exists? Verona; Italy
When Sampson says he will not “carry coals”, what does he mean? What literary technique is being used in this silly exchange between Sampson and Gregory? He will not take insults; a pun
Complete this sentence: In Shakespearean times, biting your thumb was… an insult
Is Benvolio a Montague or a Capulet? Montague
Why doesn’t Lady Capulet want her husband to get involved in the fight? She thinks he is too old
How many times have the Capulets and Montagues had street fights recently? 3 times
How has Romeo been spending his days recently? locked in his room being moody
List three of the oxymorons Romeo uses to describe the conflict between his family and the Capulets. Then, explain how the family feud is oxymoronic in its nature. heavy lightness, sick health, feather of lead; both families hate each other, but they are alike
Romeo is heartsick over a girl (it’s not Juliet) who is not at all interested in Romeo. Name three of the ineffective romantic strategies Romeo has used in his attempt to woo this girl. sweet talk, lingering eye contact, gifts of gold
Why doesn’t this girl like Romeo? She wants to become a nun
What does Benvolio tell Romeo to do in order to forget the girl who doesn’t want him? Look at all the other beautiful women in Verona
What “suit” does Paris bring to Capulet in Scene 2? marriage
How old is Juliet? What are her father’s thoughts about allowing her to marry? 13 years old; her father thinks that she is too young
Lord Capulet’s willingness to allow Juliet to have a say in whom she marries is pretty progressive, since most marriages for this social class at the time would’ve been arranged by parents. Why, do you suppose, Capulet is willing to take Juliet’s feelings into consideration? Since Juliet is an only child, she is spoiled rotten
Why is the Capulet servant upset about having been given a list of party guests to find? The servant is unable to read
Why does Benvolio want to crash the party? Why does Romeo agree? He wants Romeo to compare Rosaline to the other pretty girls; Romeo agrees so he can be near Rosaline
What does Romeo want to happen to his eyes if they find someone other than Rosaline desirable at the party? What does this show us about Romeo? burn; It shows us that Romeo is very dark and passionate
In your own words, explain the Nurse’s two stories about Juliet as a toddler. there was an earthquake and Juliet fell on her face
Does Lady Capulet want Juliet to love Paris? Yes, she says Paris is a gorgeous book and Juliet will be the cover
What is Juliet’s reaction to her mother’s request? What does this show us about Juliet? She says she will think about marrying Paris; she is obedient
According to Mercutio, who or what is Queen Mab, and what does she do? Queen Mab is a Fairy who delivers babies and dreams
What does Romeo say about the value of dreams? Romeo thinks that dreams hold the secret of fate
What does Mercutio say about the value of dreams? Mercutio believes that they are meaningless
At the end of Scene 4, Romeo mentions the subject of his latest vivid dream. What did Romeo dream? Why isn’t he changing his course of action? What does this show us about Romeo? Romeo dreamed that he was going to die young because of the party; he believes we are powerless when it comes to fate
When Romeo first sees Juliet, what terms does he use to describe her? a glowing jewel in a dark-skinned ear, a snowy dove among black crows
How does Tybalt recognize Romeo? his voice
When Tybalt is ready to seize Romeo and throw him out of the party, what does Capulet say to Tybalt? Why? What is Tybalt’s reaction to this? Capulet tells Tybalt to leave Romeo alone because he doesn’t want to cause a scene; Tybalt is a hothead and is angry
How does Romeo find out Juliet’s last name? How does Juliet find out Romeo’s last name? The nurse tells each of them
What does the Act 2 Prologue say happened to Romeo’s love for Rosaline? How is an this example of foreshadowing? love is dead and buried; that is exactly what happens to Romeo and Juliet
What does Romeo mean by “dull earth” in Scene 1, line 2? He sounds literal; his heart is with Juliet
Who does Mercutio think that Romeo is in love with in his speech in Scene 1, lines 6-21? What’s funny about these lines? Rosaline; Mercutio is teasing him
When Romeo says, “He jests at scars that never felt a wound,” what does he mean? He means that Mercutio jokes about Romeo’s loving feelings because Mercutio himself has never been in love.
What does Romeo compare Juliet to in his first speech in Sc. 2, lines 2-3? Just as he did in 1.5, Romeo refers to Juliet as a brilliant luminous light thing in the dark. This time she is the sun in the nighttime sky. She’s so bright and pretty that she makes the moon jealous, he says.
In your own words, rewrite Juliet’s speech in Scene 2, lines 33-36. Go line-by-line as you restate her meaning. Oh, Romeo, why do you have to be a Montague? You should turn your back on your family and change your name. Or, if you can’t do that, then tell me you love me and I’ll change my name/leave my family.
When Juliet says, “That which we call a rose / By any other word would smell as sweet,” what does she mean? Do names matter in our lives? If you had a different first name, do you think you might have grown up to be a slightly different person? She means that Romeo would be wonderful, no matter what name he was called.
In your own words, translate Juliet’s meaning in lines 95-101. Why do other young lovers, both then and now, play such games? Since Romeo already heard Juliet admit that she loves him when she thought she was talking to herself, she is embarrassed. She says that, if Romeo thinks she’s too quick to fall in love with him, she can pretend not to really like him and play hard-to-get, so that Romeo will have to do more to woo her. Then she again admits to his face that she is very much into him and says that, in time, she’ll prove to him to be truer, better partner than any of the silly girls who play such games.
Why does Juliet ask Romeo not to swear his love’s allegiance by the moon? The moon is not constant; it’s always changing in a cycle from full to a barely there crescent. She says she doesn’t want to think that his love will be similar to such a here- today-gone-tomorrow cycle.
Which one is the first to mention marriage? What does this show us about this character? Juliet mentions marriage first. This shows us that she is a good girl; there won’t be any hanky-panky. If he likes it, Romeo needs to put a ring on it.
What does Juliet instruct Romeo to send her the next day? She wants him to send a message of when and where she needs to go to get married to him. He says he’ll have the info. by 9 a.m.
Look at lines 182-184. What do these lines literally mean? Then, explain how this bit of text is an example of foreshadowing. Then, explain how this bit of text is an example of foreshadowing. Literally, Romeo means that he wishes he was Juliet’s pet bird, so that she could keep him near her all the time. Juliet agrees that would be wonderful, but she admits she would love him so much, squeeze him so tightly that she might kill her little bird. This passage, specifically the “I should kill thee with much cherishing” bit, foreshadows the death of Romeo, in that he will die because she loves him so much.
At the beginning of Scene 3, what is Friar Laurence doing? He’s gathering herbs and flowers in a basket. His hobby is herbology, and he likes to investigate the medicinal and poisonous qualities of the plants and flowers he’s gathering.
According to the Friar, how are humans like plants? Inside both plants and human lies goodness and darkness/medicine and poison. We all have both qualities within us, but it is how we use those things given to us from Mother Earth that determines the health and happiness of our lives.
With whom does Friar Laurence assume Romeo has spent the night? The Friar thinks Romeo was with Rosaline, his old crush.
In lines 87-88, the Friar says, “O, she knew well / Thy love did read by rote and could not spell.” Explain what he means here. He’s saying that Rosaline didn’t return Romeo’s love because she knew it wasn’t real love. It’s as if Romeo has memorized the rules of love, but can’t actually read from the book of love.
Why does the Friar begrudgingly agree to marry Romeo and Juliet? He hopes the marriage will stop some of the fighting between the warring families. He sees that good things could come out of this union.
Who are Laura, Dido, Cleopatra, Helen, and Hero? What does Mercutio say about them? These women are all famous beautiful women from history and literature. Mercutio is saying that Romeo thinks all of these gorgeous ladies are nothing more than kitchen wenches and prostitutes when you compare them to the glorious Rosaline. Obviously, Mercutio doesn’t yet know that Romeo has moved on to a new love.
Write down three subjects Mercutio and Romeo make puns about in Scene 4, lines 44-70. slip/slip (counterfeit coin); courtesy/curtsy; sole (of shoe)/sole (alone); goose (to eat)/goose (pinch bottom)
How does Mercutio treat the Nurse? He makes rude jokes about her.
What instructions does Romeo tell the Nurse to pass on to Juliet? He says that Juliet should make up an excuse that she needs to go to confession at the church this afternoon. When she gets to the church, Romeo will be there waiting with the Friar to marry them.
Who does the Nurse say also wants to marry Juliet? What does she say Juliet’s feelings are for this other suitor? She mentions that Paris is also interesting in winning Juliet’s hand in marriage, but that Juliet’s not interested in him at all. Juliet, the Nurse says, looks sick and pale whenever the subject of Paris arises.
What time of day is it? Noon
How long has the Nurse been gone on her errand to find Romeo? She has been gone for nearly three hours and the delay is driving Juliet crazy because the Nurse said she’d only be gone for half an hour.
What’s humorous about the way the Nurse treats Juliet in this scene? The Nurse is deliberately stalling because she knows how anxious Juliet is to hear the news from Romeo. This is a cute scene and should be played for laughs.
Is Romeo fearful of the future? Write down the lines that support your answer. Romeo is not afraid of the premonition he had in the dream mentioned at the end of 1.4. These are the lines that prove this: “Then love-devouring death do what he dare/It is enough I may but call her mine.”
In your own words, explain the Friar’s warning in these lines:”These violent delights have violent ends And in their triumph die like fire and powder,Which, as they kiss, consume.” The Friar is saying that loving quickly and sharply like this means that your love will end quickly and sharply, too. This intense-type of love consumes itself with its heat, like gunpowder is burned up by fire when they touch. The Friar is trying to warn Romeo here to slow down and contain his passion.
In your own words, explain the Friar’s message in these lines:”Therefore love moderately; long love doth so:Too swift arrives as tardy as too slow.” Again, he wants Romeo to slow down a little bit so that his love with Juliet can be a lasting love. When it comes to love, falling too quickly in love is just as bad as being too slow to act on your loving feelings. You have to time these things just right, if you want to build a love that will last a long time.
What happens at the very end of thisscene? Romeo and Juliet get married, but it happens off-stage. The audience knows, though, that they are now officially, if not publicly, Mr. and Mrs. Romeo Montague.
What reason does Paris give for not having spent much time courting Juliet? She has been grieving over Tybalt
Name three of the horrible things Juliet says she would find preferable to marrying Paris. kill herself, be chained to a bear, be locked in a tomb with dead people
Describe the Friar’s plan in your own words. He will have Juliet drink potion that makes her appear dead. Juliet will be placed in the tomb. He will send a message to Romeo to tell him of the plan. Romeo will be there when she wakes up. They will run away.
How do you know if you’re hiring a good cook? a good cook will lick his fingers
Juliet was supposed to marry Paris on Thursday, but what has her father decided? to move the wedding to Wednesday
Who will stay up all night to make sure the wedding party preparations are complete? Capulet
In case the potion doesn’t work, what item does Juliet keep with her in the bed? a dagger
Describe three things Juliet thinks might go wrong if she takes the potion. die, suffocate, go insane
Write down six words from Juliet’s speech (Scene 3, lines 30-58) that show her feelings about death. hideous, mangled, loathsome, terror, horrible, distraught
What time in the morning is it? 3AM
In the midst of all the cooking and prepping, Paris arrives for his wedding date. Given the answer to the previous question, what does this arrival show us about Paris? Paris is excited
What does Capulet mean when he says the Nurse should “go and trim her up” in Scene 4, line 27? make her look good
Who is the first to find Juliet’s body and think that she’s dead in Scene 5? the Nurse
In what three ways does Capulet say he can tell Juliet is dead? stiff joints, cold body, settled blood
What does the Friar advise Juliet’s parents to do with her body? to put the body in the tomb
In a sly way, the Friar actually blames Juliet’s parents for her lifelessness. Write the lines in which he says they are being punished by God. line 100 pg 205
Why does Shakespeare end this heavy, emotionally wrenching scene with the odd exchange between Peter and the musicians? Shakespeare wants to lighten the mood and remind us that Juliet is not dead
Describe the dream that Romeo has just had at the beginning of Scene 1? Romeo thinks he is dead and Juliet kissed him. He came back to life and became emperor
Who brings news from Verona? What is the news? Balthasaar comes to tell Romeo of Juliet’s “death”
Write down three odd things Romeo noticed in the apothecary shop. the old man was frail, a stuffed alligator, and dusty seeds
Why is it difficult to get poison in Mantua? Why does Romeo believe this apothecary will sell him some despite this? selling poison is illegal; the man is poor
In Scene 2, what is Friar John’s excuse for not having delivered the letter to Romeo? The guards would not let him in because they thought that he was infectednwith the plague
What is Friar Laurence’s plan of action once he realizes Romeo hasn’t received his letter? He will send Romeo another letter and wake Juliet
Who is the first person to arrive at Juliet’s tomb in Scene 3? Why is he there? Paris; to mourn and lay flowers
Explain Paris’ logic in thinking that Romeo is responsible for Juliet killing herself. He thinks Juliet died from grieving over Tybalt
Did Paris love Juliet? Give evidence to support your answer. No, he was not interested before
Romeo comments that Juliet looks just as beautiful in death as she did in life, with roses in her cheeks and lips. He doesn’t realize that the “death” is just a potion that’s wearing off. Instead, why does he figure Juliet is still so beautiful? He said that death wants to be Juliet’s lover
Does Juliet wake up just before Romeo dies or just after? just after
Who is present when Juliet awakens? Why doesn’t this person stay? Friar Lawrence; he thinks he will get in trouble
Why does Juliet kiss Romeo’s lips even after he already died? She wanted to get some of the poison off his lips
Juliet says, “Thy lips are warm!” This is, quite arguably, one of the saddest lines in the entire play. Why are these four little words so meaningful? They missed each other by minutes. They were so close.
How does Juliet kill herself? by stabbing herself with a dagger
Which two characters are detained by the watchmen after Juliet’s death? Friar Lawrence and Balthasaar
Who else died tonight? How do we find out? Lady Montague; Montague says that she died of the thought of Romeo being banished
How many people died in this play? List their names in order of their deaths. Mercutio, Tybalt, Lady Montague, Paris, Romeo, Juliet
“There’s no trust,No faith, no honesty in men; all are perjuredAll forsworn, all naught; dissemblers all!” Nurse
“Our Romeo hath not been in bed tonight.” Friar Lawrence
“No less? Nay, bigger! Women grow by men.” Nurse
“What satisfaction canst thou have tonight?” Juliet
“If thou dost love, pronounce it faithfully. Or if thou thinkest I am too quickly won, I’ll frown and be perverse and say thee naySo thou wilt woo.” Juliet
“Where is my mother? Why, she is within. Where should she be? How oddly thou repliest!” Juliet
“He is a kinsman to the Montagues;Affection makes him false, he speaks not true.” Lady Capulet
“I can tell you, but young Romeo will be older when you have found him than he was when you sought him.” Romeo
“These times of woe afford no times to woo. Madam, good night, commend me to your daughter.” Paris
“But come, young waverer, come, go with me,In one respect I’ll thy assistant be,For this alliance may so happy proveTo turn your households’ rancor to pure love.” Friar Lawrence
“Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon,Who is already sick and pale with grief,That thou, her maid, art far more fair than she.” Romeo
“That which we call a roseBy any other word would smell as sweet.” Juliet
“I conjure thee by Rosaline’s bright eyes,By her high forehead and her scarlet lip.” Mercutio
“Beauty too rich for use, for earth too dear!” Romeo
“When I have fought with the men, I will be civil with the maids. I will cut off their heads.” Sampson
“Good thou, save me a piece of marchpane, and, as thou loves me, let the porter let in Susan Grindstone and Nell.—Antony and Potpan!” Peter
”I’ll look to like if looking liking move.But no more deep will I endart mine eyeThan your consent gives strength to make it fly.” Juliet
”You men, you beasts,That quench the fire of your pernicious rageWith purple fountains issuing from your veins.” Prince
”A crutch, a crutch! Why call you for a sword?” Lady Capulet
”I’ll go along, no such sight to be shown,But to rejoice in splendor of mine own.” Romeo
”Prodigious birth of love it is to me,That I must love a loathèd enemy.” Juliet
”I tell you, he that can lay hold of herShall have the chinks.” Nurse
”But I can give thee more,For I will raise her statue in pure gold” Montague
”O, that deceit should dwellIn such a gorgeous palace!” Juliet
”Susan and she—God rest all Christian souls!—Were of an age. Well, Susan is with God.She was too good for me.” Nurse
”The earth, that’s nature’s mother, is her tomb.What is her burying, grave that is her womb.” Friar Lawrence
”My only love sprung from my only hate!Too early seen unknown, and known too late!” Juliet
”Death lies on her like an untimely frostUpon the sweetest flower of all the field.” Capulet
At the beginning of Act 3, who says the following lines? What do these lines foreshadow?”I pray thee, good Mercutio, let’s retire.The day is hot, the Capulets abroad,And, if we meet, we shall not ‘scape a brawl,For now, these hot days, is the mad blood stirring.” Benvolio; a fight
What does Mercutio tell us about Benvolio in lines 15-27? Is this true? Explain what’s happening here. Benvolio is a hothead; yes
Examine Mercutio’s “grave man” line. What figure of speech is used? What is the meaning? pun; he’s saying who’s dead
Explain the following lines (104-110):”This gentlemen, the Prince’s near ally,My very friend, hath got his mortal hurtIn my behalf – my reputation stainedWith Tybalt’s slander – Tybalt, that an hourHath been my cousin. O sweet Juliet,Thy beauty hath made me effeminateAnd in my temper soft’ned valor’s steel!” Mercutio is related to the Prince; Romeo feels guilty
Explain the Prince’s judgment and why he makes this ruling. He was within his rights and relatives
In her speech at the beginning of Scene 2, what is Juliet looking forward to that night? hanky-panky
Give two examples from lines 26-31 that Juliet uses to explain the agony of expectation that she’s feeling.
Write down three of the oxymorons Juliet uses to describe Romeo and explain why she uses this literary technique to describe her young husband. beautiful tyrant, fiend angelical, a dove feathered raven
The Nurse says, “Shame come to Romeo!” How does Juliet react to the Nurse? She became upset with the Nurse
Where is Romeo hiding? Friar Lawrence’s chamber
What is Friar Laurence’s opinion of Romeo’s punishment in Scene 3, lines 25-28? He thinks that Romeo got lucky
In Scene 3, lines 33-39, why does Romeo say that is is less honored than carrion-flies? He is jealous he can’t be with Juliet while he can
What three reasons does Friar Laurence give Romeo to show that he should be happy? He is alive, Juliet loves him, and he got a lighter sentence than usual
In Scene 3, the Nurse gives Romeo a gift from Juliet. What is the gift? her ring
Capulet explains to Paris that Juliet is upstairs crying about Tybalt. He says, “Look you, she loved her kinsman Tybalt dearly, And so did I. Well, we were born to die.” From this passage, explain how Capulet felt about his nephew. Why, do you suppose, he felt this way? Tybalt wasn’t Capulet’s favorite person
What decision does Capulet make, thinking that it will cheer up Juliet? He makes her marry Paris
What is Paris’ reply when Capulet makes his announcement? He is happy and excited
Why does Juliet want to believe the songbird she can hear is a nightingale, not a lark? The nightingale sings at night when Romeo and her can be together. The lark sings at daybreak when Romeo has to leave
What does Juliet mean by an “ill-divining soul” in Scene 5, line 54? Her soul predicts evil things (Romeo’s death)
Why do Juliet’s parents believe she is upset? What is their plan to help cheer her? They think she is sad because of Tybalt’s death so they plan her wedding
Earlier in the play, Capulet said Juliet will get to have a voice in whom she marries. Now, he’s raging at his daughter for speaking up against his choice. Explain why Capulet has changed his mind about listening to his daughter’s opinion about her future spouse. Capulet is shocked and does not want to be humiliated
How does the Nurse describe Paris in Sc. 5, lines 218-223? She says that Paris is better than Romeo
Mantua Apothecary’s town
Lady Montague Most likely died of a heart attack
Lady Capulet Is likely only 26 or 27 years old
Verona Hometown of Romeo and Juliet
Balthasar Falls asleep in the graveyard
Friar Lawrence Says that poison and medicine reside in all living things
Friar John Suspected of being in a house of plague infection
Benvolio Saw Romeo on a 5 a.m. walk, but didn’t talk to him
Paris Related to Mercutio and the Prince
Tybalt Sometimes called “The Prince of Cats”
Prince Escalus Declares Romeo banished
Mercutio Says dreams are meaningless
Rosaline Ignores Romeo’s loving stares
Nurse Has buried a husband and a daughter
Lord Capulet Advances the wedding date
Lord Montague Must now bury a wife and a son
Romeo Believes that dreams are fate’s messengers
Juliet Says is willing to be tied to a bear or leap from a tower
Nightengale Sings in the middle of the night
Apothecary Breaks the law because he’s starving to death
True Prince Escalus was related to two of the slain people
False Benvolio and Romeo overhear Lord Capulet talking about the party he plans to throw
False Romeo compares Juliet to the Sun, a Jewel, and the white foam on an ocean wave
False Friar Lawrence will be executed for his role in deceit
True Juliet sends the Nurse to find Romeo after she learns that he is banished
False If Juliet does not marry Paris, Capulet threatens to murder her
False Peter tells Romeo that Juliet is dead
False On the day of her death, Juliet was 14 years old
True The Capulet parents believe Juliet is crying about Tybalt’s death
True Shakespeare begins only the first two acts of the play with a sonnet
False The quarrel between the Montagues and the Capulets was started by Romeo’s grandmother
True On the morning of her marriage to Paris, Juliet appears to be dead
True Paris did not kill anyone in the play
False Including himself, Romeo stabbed or poisoned two people
False Paris was a Montague
Juliet “My only love sprung from my only hate. Too early seen unknown and known too late.”
Mercutio “Ay, ay, a scratch, a scratch; marry, ’tis enough.”
Lord Capulet “…get thee to church o’ Thursday Or else never after look me in the face.”
Romeo “With Rosaline, my ghostly father? No; I have forgot that name, and that name’s woe.”
Tybalt “What, drawn, and talk of peace? I hate the word as I hate hell… and thee. Have at thee coward.”
Paris “These times of woe afford no time to woo. Madam, good night. Commend me to your daughter.”
Juliet “Oh happy daggar! This is thy sheath; there rust, and let me die.”
Friar Lawrence “Take this vial, being then in bed, And this distilled liquor drink thou of.”
Lord Montague “Many a morning hath he there been seen with tears augmenting the fresh morning’s dew.”
Juliet “You kiss by the book.”
Nurse “Thou wast the prettiest babe that e’er I nursed. And I might live to see thee married once, I have my wish.”
Lord Capulet “Let two more summers wither in their pride Ere we may think her ripe to be a bride.”
Romeo “She doth teach the torches to burn bright… Beauty too rich for use, for earth to dear.”
Lord Capulet “Death lies on her like an untimely frost upon the sweetest flower of all the field.”
Prince Escalus “For never was a story of more woe than this of Juliet and her Romeo.”
romeo and mercutio I dream’d a dream to-night. / And did so I. / Well what was yours? / That dreamers often lie.
friar laurence For naught so vile that on the earth doth live / But to the earth some special good doth give; /Nor naught so good but, strain’d from that fair use, / Revolts from true birth, stumbling on the abuse: / Virtue itself turns vice, being misapplied; / And vice sometimes by action dignified.
mercutio O then, I see Queen Mab hath been with you. / She is the fairies’ midwife, and she comes / In shape no bigger than an agate-stone / On the fore-finger of an alderman, / Drawn with a team of little atomies / Athlwart men’s noses as they lie asleep.
chorus prologue
romeo Oh, she doth teach the torches to turn bright!/ It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night / Like a rich jewel in an Ethiope’s ear, / Beauty too rich for use, for earth too dear. / So shows a snowy dove trooping with crows / As yonder lady o’er her fellows shows. / The measure done, I’ll watch her place of stand, / And, touching hers, make blessed my rude hand. / Did my heart love till now? Forswear it, sight! / For I ne’er saw true beauty till this night.
juliet Wilt thou be gone? It is not yet near day. / It was the nightingale, and not the lark, / That pierc’d the fearful hollow of thine ear; / Nightly she sings on yond pomegranate tree. / Believe me love, it was the nightingale.
juliet My only love sprung from my only hate! / Too early seen unknown, and known too late!
romeo & mercutio Courage, man; the hurt cannot be much. / No, ’tis not so deep as a well, nor so wide as a church-door; but / ’tis enough, ’twill serve: ask for me to-morrow, and she you shall find me a / grave man.
tybalt Romeo, the hate I bear thee can afford / No better term than this: thou art a villain.
sampson & gregory, abraham Do you bite your thumb at us, sir? / I do bite my thumb, sir. / Do you bite your thumb at us sir? / Is the law of our side if I say ay? / No. / No, sir, I do ot bite my thumb at you sir; but I bite my thumb, sir.
juliet Come, gentle night,- come, loving black brow’d night, / Give me my Romeo; and when he shall die, Take him and cut him out in little stars, / And he will make the face of Heaven so fine / That all the world will be in love with night, / And paw no worship the the garish sun.
juliet You kiss by th’book.
prince escalus For never was a story of more woe / Than this of Juliet and her Romeo.
romeo Why then, O brawling love! O loving hate!/ O any thing, of nothing first created; / O heavy lightness! serious vanity! / Mis-shapen chaos of well-seeming forms!
juliet Or bid me go into a new-made grave, / And hide me with a dead man in his shroud- / Things that, to hear them told, have made me tremble – / And I will do it without fear or doubt, / To live an unstain’d wife to my sweet love.
Who is Paris? A Kinsman of the PrinceLord Capulet picks Paris to marry Juliet
Who is Benvolio? Romeo’s cousinUnsuccessful peacemaker in the play, attempting to prevent violence between the Capulet and Montague families.
Who is Friar John? A Franciscan friar charged by Friar Lawrence with taking the news of Juliet’s fake death to Romeo in Mantua. Friar John is held up in a quarantined house, and the message never reaches Romeo.
Who is Lord Montague? Romeo’s dad.
Who is the Nurse? Juliet’s nurse, the woman who breast-fed Juliet when she was a baby and has cared for Juliet her entire life. A vulgar, long-winded, and sentimental character, the Nurse provides comic relief with her frequently inappropriate remarks and speeches
Who is Juliet Capulet? Juliet Capulet is Lord Capulet’s only daughter.
Who is Mercutio? Mercutio is Romeo’s best friend, and also related to Prince Escalus (somehow). Mercutio is neither a Capulet or Montague which makes him able to hang out with people from both houses.
Who is Lord Capulet? Juliet’s dad.
Who is Tybalt? Tybalt is Juliet Capulet’s cousin. Tybalt is also a Capulet (obviously)
Who is Lady Montague? Romeo’s motherLord Montague’s wife
Who is Friar Lawrence? A Franciscan friar, friend to both Romeo and Juliet. Kind, civic-minded, a proponent of moderation, and always ready with a plan, Friar Lawrence secretly marries the impassioned lovers in hopes that the union might eventually bring peace to Verona. As well as being a Catholic holy man, Friar Lawrence is also an expert in the use of seemingly mystical potions and herbs.
Who is Peter? A Capulet servant who invites guests to Capulet’s feast and escorts the Nurse to meet with Romeo. He is illiterate, and a bad singer
Who is the Apothecary? The poor pharmacist that gives Romeo the poison.
Who is Balthasar? Romeo’s dedicated servant, who brings Romeo the news of Juliet’s death, unaware that her death is a ruse
Who is Lady Capulet? Juliet’s mom
Who is Prince Escalus? The Prince of Verona. A kinsman of Mercutio and Paris. As the seat of political power in Verona, he is concerned about maintaining the public peace at all costs
Who is Romeo Montague? The son and heir of Montague and Lady Montague. A young man of about sixteen, Romeo is handsome, intelligent, and sensitive. Though impulsive and immature, his idealism and passion make him an extremely likable character
How is the Globe Stage set up? Up high: nobilityTowards the middle seating: Middle Class/Upper Middle ClassOn the ground: Peasants (aka groundlings)
How many plays did Shakes. write? 37
What does / mean? New line of a poem
What are Shakespeare’s 4 inspirations? Greek tragediesSenecan TragediesEnglish tudor poetryPre-Shakespearean Morality Plays
Shakespeare turned to a life of… pessimissim
What are the 14 characteristic of a tragic hero? person of high position or some statusmust be a good personactions must have far reaching effectshas a trait that normally is a virtue but ends up being a flawshows promise of further greatness in the futurefrequently makes serious errorsultimately for the deed that leads to his downfallmakes further errorsdistorted perception/is blind to realitycommits further crimes contributing to his downfallsuffers both outwardly and inwardlymust elicit pity and fear from the audienceusually recognizes his mistakesmust die
How is love shown as a theme? Romeo and Juliet are so infatuated with eachother that they fall in love
How is fate shown as a theme? Romeo and Juliet’s downfall was written in the stars
How is individual vs. society shown as a theme? Juliet and Romeo love eachother but they are from different houses (Capulet vs. Montague)
How is language/wordplay shown as a theme? The characters that pun and play with language have fun doing it. But word play in Romeo and Juliet has a deeper purpose: rebellion. Ex. light, roses: lovedarkness, clouds: brokenhearted
How is servant status shown as a theme? Shakespeare use comedy to appeal to the servants.Ex: the scene @ the ball when the servants steal the food from the kitchen
What is perepetia? the necessary reversal of fortunes, from good to bad
What is anagnorisis? the change from ignorance to knowledge
What is a tragic fall? the hero must have some sort of potential that has been squandered
What is a catharsis? the purging of pity and fear that is supposed to occur in a tragedy
What is a pun? a joke exploiting the different possible meanings of a word or the fact that there are words that sound alike but have different meanings (Found often in Mercutio and Romeo’s dialogue)
What is an aside? short comment or speech that a character delivers directly to the audience or to himself, while others
What is soliloquy? a speech given by one character to himself ( longer than an aside, reveals something to audience)
What is a tragic hero? must possess admirable qualities, representing some sort of peak of humanity
What is a tragic flaw? some trait or defect in the tragic hero that leads to an error on the part of the hero, ultimately leading to his or her downfall
What is a sonnet? a poem of fourteen lines using any of a number of formal rhyme schemes, in English typically having ten syllables per line.
What is a simile? a figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind, used to make a description more emphatic or vivid
What is a metaphor? a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable.
What is a monologue? a long speech by one actor in a play or movie, or as part of a theatrical or broadcast program.
What is conceit? excessive pride in oneself; a fanciful expression in writing or speech; an elaborate metaphor.
What is dramatic irony? the expression of one’s meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect
What is personification? the attribution of a personal nature or human characteristics to something nonhuman, or the representation of an abstract quality in human form.
What is foreshadowing? be a warning or indication of (a future event).
Lady Capulet -not warm and fuzzy-Juliet’s mother-Had Juliet at Juliet’s age (around 13, now 26 years old)-Says Lord Capulet is too old to fight-She says Paris is the book and Juliet will be the cover
Romeo AND Juliet -A name is not what makes you who you are-I will be who you want me to be-Love was Romeo’s guide-Passion gives them power
Juliet Capulet (sorry lots of detail) -acts out of love-13 years old-only child and daughter of Capulets (Aristocracy family)-her birthday is on Lammas Eve aka July 31 -Begins the play naïve -A name is not what makes you who you are-Messenger at 9!****-confesses love for Romeo FIRST-Weeps because of Romeo being banished more than weeps for tybalts death-Wife to romeo, fiancé to Paris (does not want to marry)-sassy-takes a potion to put her to sleep for 42 hours (2 and 40) -Wakes up and Romeo is dead-Kisses him to see if poison is still on his lips-dismisses Friar Lawrence–>Stabs herself with daggar
Lord Capulet -“Death lies on her like an untimely frost. Upon the sweetest flower of all the field.”-Patriarch-not well acquainted with Juliet’s thoughts or feelings-rage-Hot–> cold-You will do what I tell you or I will disown you
Tybalt -Prince of cats-Juliet’s cousin (Moms side)-Vain, fashionable, violent, quick to draw sword when pride injured-Challenges Romeo-Slays Mercutio, slain by Romeo-Lord Capulet is not very fond of him-Loathes all Montagues-OBSESSED WITH HONOR
Paris -oblivious to juliet-Kinsman of Prince-Believes Juliet is his love-Innocent-Hard to woo a girl when she is so in tears-Juliet is being snippy with Paris-killed by romeo at juliets tomb, wishes to lie with true love when dies
Mercutio -Queen Mab-Related to Prince and Paris-dirty minded-crazy-If loves rough with you, be rough with love-Tybalt slays him-“Only a scratch”-He functions to deflate the possibility of romantic love and the power of tragic fate (comedic, puns)
Romeo Montague -16 -Only son of Montague’s-In love with the idea of love AT FIRST-kissing lacks originality-pilgrim -His words are original with juliet -emo-Fortunes Fool-Banished-mercy-Flaw: impulsive -Rosaline is now the moon and Juliet is the bright sun-I will be who you want me to be-Love was Romeo’s guide-death poison-OBSESSED WITH LOVE
Lady Montague -Dies because of her sadness over romeo-Romeo’s mother, Montague’s wife
Lord Montague -Concerned about romeos melancholy-Patriarch of Montague house hold
Prince Escalus -he Prince of Verona-A kinsman of Mercutio and Paris-Seat of political power in Verona-concerned about maintaining the public peace at all costs
Balthasar -Romeo’s dedicated servant-brings Romeo the news of Juliet’s death-unaware that her death is false
Friar Lawrence -He is a fiar-good advice-Very into remedies, herbs, potions, (medicine) -Marries Romeo and Juliet-He runs off when Juliet asks him before she kills her self, he doesn’t stop her -sole figure of religion-very scheming (most in the play)(look to schemes slide)-Friar is not only subject to fate that dominates the plan—in many ways he brings that fate about
Friar Lawrence advice -Love lies within eyes not hearts- Romeo is in love with idea of being in love, Rosaline knew he never actually had feelings for Rosaline-Good and bad in all of us-heal rift within 2 families-Love moderately because the passion, although it burned up fast, it could quickly burn out
What sort of schemes did Friar Lawrence partake in? -marries Romeo and Juliet (as part of a plan to end the civil strife in Verona)-Hides Romeo-Sends Romeo into Juliet’s room and then out of Verona-plans to reunite Romeo and Juliet through sleeping potion
Friar John -Friar Lawrence gave him the responsibility of taking the news of Juliet’s false death to Romeo in Mantua-held up in a quarantined house for spark of plague-message never reaches Romeo.
Nurse -jumbles up words-breast fed Juliet-Cares for juliet and is often a messenger from juliet to romeo Vise versa-Unexpectedly turns against juliet and sides with boss-Used for comic relief -Cared for Juliet her whole life-tells stories of young juliet-had a daughter juliets age, she passed-Named Susan (daughter)
Peter -A Capulet servant who invites guests to Capulet’s feast-escorts the Nurse to meet with Romeo-He is illiterate, and a bad singer-did not stand up for his good friend, the nurse, when mercutio offended her
Apothecary -Mantua-sells poison but ALSO medicine! -Took money from romeo because he is poor, hungry, and weak
Benvolio -Montague’s nephew-Romeo’s cousin-thoughtful friend-makes a genuine effort to defuse violence in public -nasty temper in private-trying to help Romeo get his mind off Rosaline, even after Romeo has fallen in love with Juliet-loyal
Rosaline -Romeo loves the idea of her-Juliet’s cousin-Becoming a Nun-Rosaline is now the moon and Juliet is the bright sun-Rosaline makes all the romantic heroines look like a wHo*e
Rosaline this character rejects Romeo and is the cause of his angst in the first scenes of the play
Mercutio this chapter is a jokester who is related to the Prince this character says that dreams are meaningless
Lady Capulet this character is probably around 26 years old, and is not exactly “warm”
Tybalt this character is known as the “Prince of Cats”
Friar John this character is suspected of being in the house with a plague infection
Stratford upon Avon this is Shakespeare’s hometown
(with) Flags this is how the playhouses announced what plays were being put on that day
Southwark this was the area of England that the Globe was in
Sam Wannamaker this is the man who reconstructed the Globe
Seneca this is the Roman playwright who greatly influenced Shakespearean tragedy
the Servants (at the beginning) the play beings with a fight between these two groups to show how far-reaching the feud is
the Apothecary this character breaks the law because he is starving
Paris this character dies while trying to protect his fiancé’s grave
42 hours this is how long the potion that Juliet takes will last
Balthasar this is the character who tells Romeo that Juliet is dead
Lord Capulet (quote) “Death lies on her like an untimely frostUpon the sweetest flower of all the field.”
Mercutio (quote) “Ay, ay, a scratch, a scratch; marry, ’tis enough.”
Friar Lawrence “Take this vial, being then in bed, And this distilled liquor drink thou of.”
Romeo (quote) “She doth teach the torches to burn bright… Beauty too rich for use, for earth too dear.”
Prince Escalus (quote) “For never was a story of more woeThan this of Juliet and her Romeo.”
an aside these are comments made to the audile that the other character onstage cannot hear
Dramatic Irony this is when the action of characters/their dialogue indicate that they don’t know something that the audience does
Simile this is comparison using like or as
Personification this is what something that is not human is given human characteristics
Soliloquy these are speeches given by a character one on stage, to reveal their inner thoughts
Passion/Impulsivity this is Romeo’s fatal flaw
Foreshadowing this is when the action of the characters/dialogue suggests a feeling of misfortune to come
Lord Montague (quote) “Many a morning hath he there been seen With tears augmenting the fresh morning’s dew.”
Why does Shakespeare make his comments about Juliet more original? this is how Shakespeare makes Romeo’s love for Juliet seem more believable than his love for Rosaline
Major Themes The power of love overcomes the power of hate.Youth and passion are more powerful than age and moderation. Fate and choices are intertwined. Hatred leads to violence, death, and destruction.
Where were the playhouses built? On the other side of the Thames river, the Southwark
Why were playhouses not built in London? They were considered immoral
What unfavorable factors did actors have to deal with? Diseases would spreadNo roof, so actors had to act in rainAudience would throw food at actors they didn’t like
What are two columns that hold up the “Sky” (roof) meant to be? Atlas & Hercules… hold up the “Globe Theater”
Who invented classical tragedy before the Romans reformed it? Greeks
Who dies in all of the tragedies of Shakespeare? the Protagonist
What is Romeo & Juliet based off of? A poem by Arthur Brooke in 1562
What is the original source for Romeo & Juliet’s plot? the story Pyramis & Thisbe by Orid
Montague Romeo’s father
Lady Montague Romeo’s mother
Romeo 16 year-old Montague
Benvolio Romeo’s cousin
Abram Montague’s servant
Balthasar Romeo’s servant
Capulet Juliet’s father
Lady Capulet Juliet’s mother
Juliet 13 year-old Capulet
Tybalt Juliet’s cousin
Petruchio Tybalt’s friend
Samson, Gregory, Peter Capulet’s servants
Escalus Prince of Verona
Paris Escalus’ cousin who wants to marry Juliet
Friar Lawrence Friend of Romeo
Friar John Assigned by Friar Lawrence to deliver the letter containing the news of Juliet to Romeo
Apothecary Poor man who is bribed by Romeo to give him poison
Mercutio Escalus’ cousin & friend of Romeo; jokester
Setting of R&J Verona & Martua (Italy) during the 1300s
When was William Shakespeare born? April 1564 in England
When did Shakespeare establish himself professionally? Early 1590’s in the theater world of London
What acting company did Shakespeare become a playwright, actor, & shareholder? The King’s Men
The Globe most famous theater in England in 1599 (built in 1598)
When did Shakespeare die? 1616
Why was the Globe built? Lord Chamberlain’s Men (Shakespeare acting troupe) needed a place to perform their plays so they would compete with other acting troupes
Groundlings -the poor spectators would cheaply attend plays-standing on the Floor for 4-6 hours-hard to see
Second Level -middle/upper class spectators sat here-wrapped around both sides of the stage, with seating
Third Level -upper class-pay extra for a padded seat-“above” all others
The Stage where actors performed
Tiring House “Back Stage”-where costumes/props were stored-where actors got ready for performances
Hell Trapdoor on the stage that would lead to an area under the stage-AKA underworld at the Globe
Heaven -Large columns on either side of the stage supported a roof over the rear portion of the stage-a trap door in the heavens enabled performers to descend using some form of rope/harness
Regular Problems at the Globe -fights-disease-drug dealing-prostitution-theft
What happened in 1613 & 1614 to the Globe? 1613: It burned down from a cannon blast during the play “Henry VIII”1614: Reopened/rebuilt
What happened in 1642 & 1644 to the Globe? 1642: Theater was closed down by Puritans1644: Theater was torn down
Sam Wanamaker In 1949, he came to London searching for the site of the original Globe & was disappointed to not find a lasting memorial to Shakespeare. He founded the Shakespeare Globe Trust in 1970
What happened to the globe site in 1987 & 1993? 1987: building work began on the site1993: reconstruction of the Globe Theater began
How many people can the Globe hold? 3000 people
How much did Shakespeare own of the Globe 12%
When were played held? During the day for lighting
How many plays & sonnets did Shakespeare write? 37 plays & 154 sonnets
What is Shakespeare considered? The greatest playwright in the English language
How many words did Shakespeare invent? over 1700
Aristotle theorized the genre by examining the GREEK plays of the 5th century, most notably who? Oedipus the King
According to Aristotle… -tragic action must have a beginning, middle, & end-must be of a certain magnitude-evoke pity & fear by arousing emotions (catharsis)-tragic hero was an exceptional person-hero couldn’t avoid fate-conflicts are resolved by the hero’s downfall & destruction of others-end with the death of the protagonist
Tragic hero Posesses admirable qualities, representing some sort of peak of humanity
Tragic flaw Trait/defect in the tragic hero that leads to an error on the part of the hero, ultimately leading to his or her downfall (often hubris)
Perepetia Necessary reversal of fortunes, from good to bad
Catharsis Purging of pity & fear
Anagnorisis Change from ignorance to knowledge
Unity of time and place/ well defined plot (More Greek than otherwise)
A sense of waste Hero must have had some sort of potential that has been squandered
The English Morality Play Battle of good against evil as evidenced in the morality plays of the age before Shakespeare as a source of inspo
The Mirror for Magistrates Collection of English poems from the Tudor period by various authors which retell the lives & tragic ends of various historical figures; provides another source for Renaissance tragedies by Shakespeare & his contemporaries
Tragedies that are based upon historical or quasi-historical figures: King Lear, Macbeth, Hamlet, Romeo & Juliet, Othello
What is different about Shakespeare’s last six plays written from 1600-1608? They reflect a turn to pessimism & are more complexHamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, Anthony & Cleopatra, Coriolanus
What tragedian form did Shakespeare tend to follow? Roman tragedian Seneca
The Senecan Model -divided into 5 acts-tragic heroes develop courage/dignity as they face death-Cloud of Evil followed by the defeat of Reason by Evil followed by Triumph of Evil-corpse-strewn stage
Comedy view Social order flexible enough to welcome changing values, new perceptions, & aberrant behavior
Tragic view Societies thrown into crisis in which the hero must respond
Character over fate Emphasis -protagonists shape their own destinies-mature heroes are self-reflective & share those thoughts in famous soliloquies-take readers into the deepest universal of human desires & fears-do not always follow Aristotle’s pattern of catharsis
Tragedy A drama of a significant person who, because of the flaw in this character, experiences a fall that leads to suffering and death
Drama Action of the serious magnitude involving a number of people interacting on the stage
Significant Person Usually a person of high status in the community; significant that he is noted for being a noble character in some way that raises him above ordinary people
Flaw Serious problem for imperfection in a character that causes him to err in his actions
Fall The tragic hero falls physically to his death, but it also falls in the sense of not realizing his true potential; sense of waste at end of drama
Pity & Fear Emotions instilled in the audience; they identify with the hero and thus feel pity for him when he falls to his death
Pun A joke or phrase that has multiple meanings/ways to be interpreted
Dramatic Irony irony that is inherent in speeches or a situation of a drama and is understood by the audience but not grasped by the characters in the play
Foreshadowing to show or indicate beforehand
Metaphor something used, or regarded as being used, to represent something else; emblem; symbol
Simile a figure of speech in which two unlike things are explicitly compared, using “like” or “as”
Soliloquy monologue used as a device in drama to disclose a character’s innermost thoughts
Personification attribution of human nature or character to animals, inanimate objects, or abstract notions
Aside a part of an actor’s lines supposedly not heard by others on the stage and intended only for the audience
Monologue a prolonged talk or discourse by a single speaker
What are some themes in Romeo & Juliet? Forcefulness of LoveLove as a Cause of ViolenceThe Inevitability of Fate/Choices IntertwinedIndividual vs. SocietyHatred Leads to Violence, Death, Destruction
High brow comedy comedy characterized by witty dialogue , satire, biting humor, or criticism
Low brow comedy comedy that depends on physical action, broadly humorous or farcical situations, and often bawdy or vulgar jokes
Summary two star-crossed lovers in the depths of forbidden love despite an ancient family feud face horrible tragedy that is the only way to end the enduring families’ feuds
Rosaline rejects Romeo & is the cause of his angst in the first scenes in the play
Lady Capulet 26 years old, no exactly ‘warm’
Tybalt “Prince of cats”
Friar John expected to be in a house infected with the plague
What is Shakespeare’s hometown? Stratford upon Avon
Flags how the playhouses announced what plays were being put on that day
What area of England was the globe in? Southwark
Who is the man who reconstructed the globe? Sam Wannamaker
Seneca Roman playwright who greatly influenced Shakespearean tragedy
The play begins with a fight between which two groups to show how far-reaching the feud is? Servants
Apothecary Breaks the law because he is starving
Paris dies trying to protect his finance’s grave
How long does the potion Juliet take last? 42 hours
What character tells Romeo that Juliet is dead? Balthasar
“Death lies on her like an untimely frostUpon the sweetest flower of all the field.” Lord Capulet
“Ay, ay, a scratch, a scratch; marry, ’tis enough.” Mercutio
“Take this vial, being then in bed, And this distilled liquor drink thou of.” Friar Lawrence
“She doth teach the torches to burn bright… Beauty too rich for use, for earth too dear.” Romeo
“For never was a story of more woe/ Than this of Juliet and her Romeo” Prince Escalus
Aside Comments made to the audience that the other characters onstage cannot hear
Dramatic irony Characters/their dialogue indicate that they don’t know something that the audience does
Soliloquies Speeches, given by a character, alone onstage to reveal their inner thoughts
What is Romeo’s fatal flaw? Inpulsivitity/Passion
Foreshadowing when the action of the characters/dialogue suggests a feeling of misfortune to come
“Many a morning hath he there been seen /With tears augmenting the fresh morning’s dew.” Lord Montague
Which character says that dreams are meaningless? Mercutio
This is how Shakespeare makes Romeo’s love for Juliet seem more believable than his love for Rosaline. by making his comments about Juliet more original
The Globe Theatre – built in 1598, opened in 1599- built by Shakespeare and his company – most popular English theatre at the time- held about 3000 people
Problems at the Globe Theatre – fights- disease- drug dealing – prostitution – theft
What Tragedies happened at the Globe Theatre? 1613: burned down from a cannon blast during a play1642: closed down by the puritans 1644: torn down
The Floor – poor spectators would have to stand here to watch the play- difficult to see
The Second Level – for middle to upper class spectators – wrapped around both sides of the theatre- had seating
The Third Level – only the upper class could afford seats here- for extra money they could get a padded seat
The Stage – did not have a roof- actors had to deal with distractions(weather, rowdy audience)
tiring house “backstage”- where costumes and props were stored – where actors got ready for performances
“hell “ the trap door that would lead to an area under the stage
“heaven” the ceiling under the roof near the rear portion of the stage; painted with clouds and the sky
How many plays did Shakespeare write? How many sonnets? 37 plays; 154 sonnets
Themes in Romeo and Juliet: 1) the power of love is stronger than the power of hate2) fate and choice are intertwined 3) youth and passion are more powerful than age and moderation 4) hatred leads to violence, death, and destruction
Lady Capulet mother of Juliet, wife to Capulet (26 years old)
Juliet – daughter of the rich Capulets – 13 years old – in love with Romeo- says she is willing to be tied up to a bear or leap from a tower
Lord Capulet – father of Juliet- advanced Juliet & Paris wedding date
Tybalt – a Capulet – Juliet’s cousin- called the “prince of cats”
Samson, Gregory, and Peter Capulet servants
Paris – related to Mercurio & the Prince – wants to marry Juliet – innocent and unaware of Juliet’s love for Romeo- died while trying to protect Juliet’s grave
Mertucio – cousin of the Prince- friend of Romeo- a jokester; says dreams are meaningless
Romeo – son of the Montague’s; 16 years old- in love with Juliet- believed that dreams are fate’s messengers
Lady Montague – Romeo’s mother- wife to Lord Montague- most likely died of a heart attack/broken heart
Lord Montague – father of Romeo- must now bury a wife & son
Escalus – Prince of Verona- declares Romeo is to be banished
Balthazar and Abram Montague servantsBalthazar falls asleep in the graveyard
Friar Lawrence – priest and herbal expert- friend of Romeo – secretly marries Romeo & Juliet- tries to help Romeo & Juliet- says that poison & medicine reside in all living things
Friar John – assigned by Friar Lawrence to deliver the letter containing the news of Juliet to Romeo- suspected of being in a house with plague infection
Nurse -Juliet’s caregiver- has a dead husband and daughter
Apothecary – not on the Montague or Capulet side- sells Romeo the poison- breaks the law only because he is starving
Benvolio – Romeo’s cousin- saw Romeo on a 5 am walk, but didn’t talk to him
Setting: Verona and Mantua Italy, during the 1300’s
pun the humorous use of a word or phrase that suggests a different meaning
foreshadowing when the action of the characters/dialogue suggests a feeling of misfortune to come
sonnet a short 14 line poem that Shakespeare was known for; the rhyme scheme is: ABBA CDCD EFEF GG
aside comments made to the audience that the other characters onstage can’t hear
soliloquy speeches given by a character while onstage to reveal their inner thoughts
monologue a long speech by one actor in a play or movie
Order of Deaths: 1) Mertucio2) Tybalt 3) Lady Montague4) Paris 5) Romeo 6) Juliet
Where were the playhouses built? On the other side of the Thames river, the Southwark
Why were playhouses not built in London? they were considered immoral
What are two columns that hold up the “Sky” (roof) meant to be? Atlas and Hercules; they “held up” the Globe Theatre
Who dies in all of Shakespeare’s tragedies? the protagonists
commoners, gentry, and nobles at the theatre: commoners: would have to stand in the theatre pit; had to pay an entrance feegentry: paid to sit in the galleries; often got cushions for comfortNobles: paid for the best seats in the Lord’s room
Why is R&J not a typical tragedy? – does not show a person of high rank falling to death – instead, shows the death of 2 young protagonists
What was the Elizabethan view on fate? – believed that fate was through astrology- the stars influenced humans “I defy you stars!” is an example
Comic View comedy represents a social order flexible enough to welcome changing values, new perceptions, and aberrant behavior
Tragic View represents the societies thrown into a crisis in which the hero must respond
Shakespearean Tragedy a drama of a significant person who, because of a flaw in his character experiences a flaw that leads to his suffering and death
Shakespearean Tragedies produce ______ and ____ in the audience pity and fear
The Senecan Model -divided into 5 acts-tragic heroes develop courage/dignity as they face death-Cloud of Evil followed by the defeat of Reason by Evil followed by Triumph of Evil-corpse-strewn stage
The English Morality Play – enforced the battle of good against evil- inspired Shakespeare
Character over fate Emphasis -protagonists shape their own destinies-mature heroes are self-reflective & share those thoughts in famous soliloquies-take readers into the deepest universal of human desires & fears-do not always follow Aristotle’s pattern of catharsis
Rosaline girl that rejects Romeo and is the cause of his angst in the first scenes of the play
Who is the man who reconstructed the globe? Sam Wanamaker
How long does the potion Juliet takes last? 42 hours
Shakespeare’s tragedies were inspired by: – senecan tragedies- greek tragedies- english morality plays

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