part 1 of odyssey(this is just a summary of each chapter)

The Adventures of Odysseus In the opening lines, Homer calls on the Muses to help him tell Odysseus’ tale of his journey from Troy to Ithaca, his homeland.
Sailing from Troy ● The Odyssey begins when Odysseus arrives in Phaeacia after escaping from Calypso. He tells his story to Alcinous, who offers to provide him transportation home. ● Both Calypso and Circe kept Odysseus for themselves at one point. However, Odysseus remained faithful to his wife Penelope. ● Odysseus and his men first landed on Ismarus, where they plundered the villages. The men, the Cicones, fought Odysseus’ men and some of the Greeks were killed before Odysseus’ crew could escape.
The Lotus Eaters ● When the Greeks land on the island of the Lotus Eaters, Odysseus sends men to find out what theisland’s people are like. The Lotus Eaters give the Greeks the lotus flower to eat. ● The lotus flower causes people to want to stay on the island forever. ● Odysseus forces the men who ate the flower back on the ship and they leave the island.
The Cyclops (pt. 1) ● A one-eyed giant ● Cyclopes are uncivilized. ● When Odysseus and his men go searching the island, they bring a strong wine with them as an offeringto the creatures they are sure to run into. They find a Cyclops’ cave and wait inside. ● The Cyclops closes off the entrance with a boulder so that Odysseus and his men cannot escape. Every night and morning, the Cyclops eats two of Odysseus’ men. ● Odysseus makes a type of spear. When the Cyclops returns, he offers the Cyclops the wine and the Cyclops asks for Odysseus’ name (He replies “Nobody.”)
The Cyclops (pt. 2) ● Cyclops falls asleep, and so Odysseus and his men stab the Cyclops in his eye with the spear. When Cyclops screams in pain, the other Cyclopes ask who is attacking him. Cyclops says “Nobody,” which amuses the Cyclopes. ● In the morning, Odysseus ties his men underneath the Cyclops’ sheep. The Cyclops stands in the doorway to feel for Odysseus’ men, but since they are under the sheep, the Greeks are able to get out of the cave. ● When the Greeks are safely aboard the ship with the sheep, Odysseus taunts the Cyclops, revealing his real name. Odysseus’ men beg him to stop because it is angering the Cyclops, so he throws rocks at the ship. ● The Cyclops reveals that he heard a prophecy once that someone named Odysseus would cause the Cyclops to lose his eye; however, he never thought Odysseus would be a man.
The Land of the Dead ● After many other mishaps, Odysseus ends up the island where Circe lives. She turns the Greeks, except for Odysseus, into pigs. He tricks her into turning the men back, but she tells Odysseus that he mustspeak with the deceased prophet Tiresias. ● Once in the Land of the Dead, Odysseus makes an offering to make the dead appear. ● He first sees Elpenor, one of his men who was killed while they were trapped by Circe. Elpenor requests that Odysseus build a monument for him and mourn him properly. ● Odysseus next sees his mother, who was alive when he left for Troy. He did not know she was dead. ● Tiresias tells Odysseus that his journey will not be easy. He warns Odysseus to not touch the cattle of the sun god, Helios. If they do, they will be destroyed. The only survivor will be Odysseus. Strangers will have to bring him home, where he will find men have taken over his household and are trying to marry Penelope. Odysseus will kill these suitors and will live to an old age.
The Sirens ● Circe warns Odysseus about the Sirens, whose song lures sailors to their island and then destroysthem. ● Odysseus covers his men’s ears with wax, but he must hear the Sirens’ song. His men tie him to the ship’s mast.● As the ship passes the Sirens’ island, Odysseus screams to be let go- this shows how Odysseus is human and has flaws.
Scylla and Charybdis ● Scylla- sea monster/Charybdis- whirlpool ● Odysseus chooses Scylla ● Odysseus does not reveal the dangers of what’s ahead to his men. He chooses to sail near the side of Scylla in the hopes that less lives will be harmed. ● Scylla snatches six of Odysseus’ men and takes them away to eat them. The other men are able to go past Scylla, but Odysseus is haunted by the sounds of his captured men screaming his name for help.
The Cattle of the Sun God ● When they come to Helios’ island, Odysseus warns his men not to touch the cattle. This is not a problem initially because they have ample food on board. However, there is stormy weather that doesnot let up, and after a month, the men are out of food and starving. ● Odysseus goes off alone to pray to the gods for help but falls asleep. ● The Greeks decide it is ridiculous to starve when there are ample cattle around, and they kill them. ● Helios finds out and begs Zeus to punish the Greeks, or else he will disappear to the underworld. Zeus promises to strike Odysseus’ ship with a lightning bolt. In the meantime, he makes the cow skins crawl and raw meat moo. ● Odysseus is upset with his men, and when the weather clears, they board their ship. Zeus is faithful to his promise to Helios, and all of Odysseus’ men and his ship are destroyed. He alone survives. ● Odysseus has to pass Scylla and Charybdis again, and he eventually ends up on Calypso’s island.

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