Odyssey Test Comp/Character

Odysseus Epic hero of The Trojan War who is trying to return home to Ithaca to see his wife and son
Penelope Wife of Odysseus and mother of Telemachus. Penelope spends her days in the palace pining for the husband who left for Troy twenty years earlier and never returned. Homer portrays her as sometimes flighty and excitable but also clever and steadfastly true to her husband.
Telemachus Son of Odysseus and he tries to rescue his mother from the suitors in Ithaca
Icarius Penelope’s father
Laertes Odysseus’ father
Antinous Leader among the suitors
Tiresias The blind seer of Thebes, he meets Odysseus in the Land of the Dead, warns him of impending dangers, offers advice, and foretells a later quest and a long life.
Polyphemus One of the Cyclopes (uncivilized one-eyed giants) whose island Odysseus comes to soon after leaving Troy. Polyphemus imprisons Odysseus and his crew and tries to eat them, but Odysseus blinds him through a clever ruse and manages to escape. In doing so, however, Odysseus angers Polyphemus’s father, Poseidon.
Poseidon (Greek mythology) the god of the sea and earthquakes in ancient mythology
Zeus (Greek mythology) the supreme god of ancient Greek mythology . God of all Gods
Athena Daughter of Zeus and goddess of wisdom, purposeful battle, and the womanly arts. Athena assists Odysseus and Telemachus with divine powers throughout the epic, and she speaks up for them in the councils of the gods on Mount Olympus. She often appears in disguise as Mentor, an old friend of Odysseus.
Anticleia Odysseus’ mother, she dies grieving her son’s long absence and sees him only during his visit to the Land of the Dead.
Eurycleia Faithful nurse and serving woman in Ithaca. Captured by Laertes, nurse to both Odysseus and Telemachus, loyal companion to Penelope
Calypso The beautiful nymph who falls in love with Odysseus when he lands on her island-home of Ogygia. Calypso holds him prisoner there for seven years until Hermes, the messenger god, persuades her to let him go.
Circe The beautiful witch-goddess who transforms Odysseus’s crew into swine when he lands on her island. With Hermes’ help, Odysseus resists Circe’s powers and then becomes her lover, living in luxury at her side for a year.
Nausicaa The beautiful daughter of King Alcinous and Queen Arete of the Phaeacians. Nausicaa discovers Odysseus on the beach at Scheria and, out of budding affection for him, ensures his warm reception at her parents’ palace.
Hermes Messenger of the gods. Tells Calypso to let Odysseus go. Warns Odysseus about Circe.
Why was Telemachus indignant when he saw Athena on the threshold of the outer porch? Telemachus was annoyed because at first he saw another annoying suitor who was here for his mother.
Explain the symbolism of where Telemachus places Pallas Athena’s spear. The spears were old spears used during a time a war. It also gave him the idea that Athena may be a God because many people aren’t carrying spears around.
Show how Telemachus responds to his mother’s tearful plea to change the subject of the singer’s song. What does his response tell us about his character and about gender roles? He tells his mother to let the bard be, and to let him entertain us. This response tells us that he is a strong man and he loves authority. He wants power and he tells his mother that he holds the power in the house. The gender roles, would be that the males are stronger, wiser and better than the females.
Why does Telemachus say that if Odysseus had died at Troy he would have grieved less for him than he now does? Dying at war would have been a greater honor than dying getting lost, because if he died at war then he’d die fighting for something, but he’d die a hero’s death.
Eurycleia was a prized slave in Odysseus’s household. What was her relationship with Odysseus’s father, Laertes? With Odysseus’s son, Telemachus? Odysseus honoured Eurycleia. Eurycleia also treated Telemachus with care. She washed and cared for him since he was a babe.
Why do the suitors avoid going to Icarius’s house? They’d have to pay a dowry if they went to his house.
Describe one of the tricks Penelope devised to hold off the suitors. She said she would marry one of the suitors when she finished weaving a cloth for her father in law. But every night she unraveled it and would start again the next day. She did this for 3 years to prevent marrying anyone.
What will Telemachus do if he learns that his father is dead? Telemachus would return and create a proper burial site and he would marry his mother off.
Show how the Mentor rebukes the men of Ithaca. The mentor says to not let any king be gentle and kind. Let them be cruel and let them practice outrage. He also tells the suitors that they should be ashamed for what they did to the Queen and making her go threw this all.
Define the epithet “godlike Odysseus”. Meaning that, Odysseus had some qualities and traits of a god but still possessed human traits and qualities.
How did Athena recruit sailors and acquire a fast ship? She disguised herself as Telemachus and walked around the pier recruiting people to sail and find Odysseus by lending Telemachus a ship by asking a man to give her the fastest ship he had.
Whys is Athena so confident that Telemachus can successfully approach and inquire of Nestor? She knows that Telemachus has powers behind his words because he is Odysseus son.
What is the aegis? -An object of Zeus’s that Athena borrowed (the shield) -The shield of Athena which symbolized fear
Why is Athena so confident that Telemachus can successfully approach and inquire of Nestor? She thinks that Telemachus knows what to do, he is just hesitant.
Name some of the heroes who were killed in Troy. Ajax, Achilles, Patroclus, Anticolus
Who caused the quarrel between Atreus’s two sons? “Athena set them feuding, Atreus’ two sons” Athena caused the two sons to fight, they also had been drink so that could have contributed.
Explain why Nestor knew nothing of who survived and who was lost in the Trojan War. Nestor missed it all because he fled with Menelaus.
What would Mentor/Athena rather do than be killed at his/her hearth? She would rather endure great suffering before she reached home rather than to be killed at her own hearth later.
What advice does Nestor give Telemachus? Go to Sparta to King Menelaus to find out news of OdysseusDo not stay away from Ithaca for too long because the Suitors will take over
When Peisistratus and Telemachus arrived at the hollows of Ladedaemon, they drove on to where? They drove on to Menelaus palace.
What is the prime cut of roast beef a mark of? The prime cut is the best cut of the animal and it is usually reserved for the man of the house.Honor
Describe how Helen helps them get over their sorrow? Helen drugs the bowl in which they all drink their wine out off. The thing she put in is a drug that doesn’t let the person who drank it feel sorrow. So they cannot cry or feel sad.
Who is the face that launched a thousand ships Helen of Troy
How does Calypso defend herself? 1. She tended to his wounds2. The gods are hypocritical 3. She offered to make him immortal4. She loves him
Discuss the oath that Odysseus makes Calypso Swear He makes her swear on the river Styx that she wouldn’t give him any more trouble
How was Odysseus able to make it so far across the sea without being bothered by Poseidon? Poseidon was away at a fest in Ethiopia
To what is Odysseus compared when he is clinging to the rocks? Pebbles stuck to the sucker of an octopus.
Who gave Odysseus the quickest release from pain and fatique, and how did she do it? Athena, closed his eyes
How was Athena able to talk to Nausicaa? She is able to talk to Nausicaa by talking to her in her dreams.
To whom are Nausicaa and her attendants compared? They are compared to Artemis and the daughters of zeus.
What woke Odysseus? A ball that was thrown into a pool and he woke up because of the sound of laughter.
To what is Odysseus compared as he emerges from the bushes? A Withered Mountain Lion
To what is Athena’s makeover of Odysseus compared? Odysseus’s makeover by Athena is compared to a craftsman overlaying silver with gold.
Explain why Nausicaa wants Odysseus to wait outside the city. The people in the city might fawn over him and ask with a lot of questions. Also, there would be a lot of rumours about the white-armed princess and Odysseus. Nausicaa is also a virgin so to be seen in the company of a man is suspicious.
Why did Athena not meet Odysseus face to face? Athena did not meet Odysseus face to face because she didn’t want to upset Poseidon,
Tell what Athena did to Odysseus as he started out for the city. When Odysseus is making his way through the town, he is stopped by a girl who is Athena in disguise, she offers to guide him to the king’s house and also shrouds him in a mist that keeps the Phaeacians from harassing him in any way. She also tells him to direct his plea to Arete.
Who was the young girl carrying a pitcher? What is her significance? Athena was the young girl disguised as the girl carrying the pitcher.
At what craft are the women of Phaeacia skilled? The Phaeacia women were great weavers
What does Odysseus ask of Arete? He asks for mercy and allow him to stay the night so then tomorrow night he can then sail out to his native land he loves so much.
How is Odysseus able to forget his troubles? The gods pour sleep into his eyes.
In what way does Alcinous say Nausicaa was out of line? He says that Nausicaa never escorted him to the palace so that action was out of line.
Describe Pallas Athena’s disguise as she went through the city. She disguised herself as alcinous’ herald, roaming up and down the town, urging every citizen to go to the Palace and meet Odysseus.
Why did Athena pour a “shimmering grace” on Odysseus? It Odysseus taller and more massive, making him great
How did Odysseus seal the gift chest given to him by the Phaeacians He bound it fast with a good tight knot He puts it in boiling water.
Who is the Phaeacians king’s daughter? Nausicaa
What did Odysseus ask Demodocus to sing about? The Love of Ares and Aphrodite; the story in which Hephaestus finds out about this affair and makes a chain to tie them together, only to release him when poseidon and Hephaestus make a deal.
How does Odysseus introduce himself to the Phaeacians? He first tells them of his pain and his story. He greets them as a friend, he tells them of his lineage.
Describe how Odysseus rescued his men from the Lotus Eaters. Odysseus rescued his men from the Lotus Eaters by tying them onto the ship and told his other comrades to start the sail. They sailed away
What kind of social life do the Cyclopes have? Cyclopes have a peaceful social life, they live in individual caves, plant no crops, have no meeting-place for council or laws and have no ships to sail and trade with other men. Despite, the beauty and the fertility of their island, the cyclopes lead primitive lives without any semblance of organised society.
Why did Odysseus ignore the crew’s suggestion? Odysseus ignored the crew’s suggestion because he wanted to see what the Cyclops had to offer
What will be Polyphemus’s gift to Odysseus? Polyphemus promised as a “gift,” to eat Odysseus last- after he ate all of his men.
Explain why Polyphemus’s brothers did not help him. Polyphemus brothers don’t help him because he yells “Nobody’s killing me now by fraud and not by force!”. The brothers assumed that Polyphemus was ill from a disease that gods had placed on him.
What was Odysseus reasoning as he called out to Polyphemus that he, Odysseus, was the one who put out his eye? Odysseus thought that there was nothing that Polyphemus could do to him once he was safely on his boat.Odysseus is prideful so he was hubris and he wanted Polyphemus to know that Odysseus is better than a Cyclops.
Why did Aeolus let the West Wind out? He let the West Wind out for Odysseus so that he could get home to Ithacia as fast as he could.
Why did the ships go back to Aeolia? Odysseus’ shipmates who think that Aeolus has packed Odysseus a fortune in gold and silver in the bag, tear it open. However, much to their despair the bag actually contained winds. The winds burst out and haul Odysseus and his men back to Aeolia.
What kind of xenia (hospitality) do Odysseus’s men encounter among theLaestrygonians? The Laestrygonians tried to kill as many shipmates of Odysseus’ men as he could. Odysseus made it back to the ship and shouted to anyone of his shipmates that remained to get on. They rowed out as far as they could and fled.
How does Hermes help Odysseus? Hermes helped Odysseus by creating a strategy for him to help save his friends. He told Odysseus to keep a potent drug with him and then he will not be affected by Circe’s spells. Circe will give him a drink which is laced with drugs, and then the moment he drinks the drink Circe will point her long think wand at him. At that exact moment, Odysseus should run her with his sword. She’ll coax with fear and ask him to her bed and Odysseus should say no as then Circe would strip away his courage. He should only say yes, when Circe has made an oath to her about never harming him.
What does Odysseus response to Circe’s invitation say about the power of anoath? This says that Odysseus is careful. Hermes had advised Odysseus to accept Circe’s favours but only when she swears an oath to not try any more tricks, or otherwise she would rob him of his courage and manhood.
Why does Odysseus briefly consider killing his own friend and kinsmanEurylochus, and what does this say about Odysseus’s character? Eurylochus was indirectly insulting Odysseus for his way of thinking. This tells us that Odysseus is a pride-oriented man, and if anyone tries to bring him down Odysseus will try and get rid of the person who did it.
Where does Circe tell Odysseus he must go before heading home? Circe tells Odysseus that he must go to the house of death and consult the ghost of Tiresias who is the seer of Thebes.
Who asked to be buried and mourned? Why? Elpenor requests to be buried so that his body could finally be at rest.
Describe what will happen if Odysseus or his men harm the cattle of Helios the Sun. Odysseus’ ship will be destroyed alongside with his men. Even if Odysseus escapes, he will come home a broken man, with all shipmates lost and alone in a stranger’s ship.
How did Anticleia die? Is it different in the movie we watched? In the book, Anticlea dies because of her grieving, waiting on Odysseus’ return.In the movie, she commits suicide by walking into the sea.
Why does Odysseus agree to stay with the Phaeacians? He agrees to stay because if he returns with gifts he will be more respected.
What does Alcinous mean when he tells Odysseus “…you have told your tale with the skill of a bard”? He is telling Odysseus that he has excellent storytelling skills.
Who was still furious with Odysseus and why? Ajax was still furious with odysseus because Odysseus had gotten Achilles’s armor instead of him. When odysseus tries to be gracious and asks to talk to him, Ajax walks away.
What did Odysseus fear Persephone would send? He feared that Persephone might send a Gorgon’s staring face.
Which ship has made it through the Wandering Rocks? How did it do it? Argo, Jason’s Ship. Hera helped Jason as she favoured him.
Describe what lives in the misty cave. 6 headed monster name Scylla
What sucks down and belches out the black water? Cariptus , she vomits three times a day and gulps down three times a day as well.
Why did Odysseus smear wax in his men’s ears? He does so, so the shipmates and him don’t listen to the Siren’s song which lures them to his death.
Explain why Odysseus did not mention Scylla. he didn’t want the crew to stop rowing and huddle up in the hold. He didn’t want them to worry
How were Odysseus’s men drawn up the cliff? Odysseus’s men were in search of water and food, Odysseus only asked that his crew to not bother the cattle.
Why was Odysseus saved from Scylla? He was saved from Scylla as Zeus because Zeus placed a mist around him that kept him hidden from Syclla.

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