Odyssey American Government CH 3 Review

to reduce or cut short abridge
the first ten amendments to the Constitution, based strongly on the personal freedoms of the citizen bill of rights
a medium of exchange for purchases currency
equipped with a talent or a quality endowed
harassed or annoyed persecuted
request petition
to set right; correct a wrong that was committed redress
calmness; peacefulness (note: the early American spelling has two “l”s) tranquility
cannot be lost or transferred away unalienable
_____ is a political scientist and author of Two Treatises on Civil Government who believed that government could exist without the consent of the governed and that the primary purpose of the state was to protect the rights of the citizen. Locke
When the nation’s leaders met in 1787, which problems needed to be addressed? – tax collection- law enforcement- trade between states
_____ is the political scientist and author of Democracy in America. He believed that the delegation of government to the states was one of the strong points of the American system. de Tocqueville
Which of the following are guaranteed by the First Amendment? – freedom of the press- freedom of speech- freedom of religion- the right of the people to peaceably assemble- the right to petition the government for a redress of grievances
The first ten amendments to the Constitution are called the _____. Bill of Rights
The U.S. Constitution addresses which of the following issues? – presidential elections- extradition of a criminal back to a state for trial- making laws
At the end of the Constitutional Convention, the Constitution was signed by _____. thirty-nine delegates
How many amendments have been made to the Constitution since its ratification?23 27
to receive and make one’s own adoption
earnings; wage compensation
citizen of a district that elects representatives to government constituents
authorized or assigned; allowed delegated
list; a number of enumeration
exemptions; protections immunities
disobeyed or violated infringed
housed; supplied with home-like arrangements quartered
authorized; put into legislation ratified
law that gives authority to law enforcement to seize designated items for evidence of a crime search and seizure
official judicial writing that authorizes a search warrant
The assembly called for a “Bill of Rights” that would list U.S. citizens’ _____. immunities and freedoms
The actual number of amendments that the leaders first proposed was ______, but two were not ratified at the time. twelve
_____ was a Virginia delegate and one of the most powerful influences on the writing of the Bill of Rights. Mason
The Second Amendment gives the citizen the right to _____. keep and bear arms
The Second Amendment states,”the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.” Infringed means _____. violated
What applies to the fourth amendment? – The people should not be subjected to unreasonable search and seizures.- Warrants are only issued upon probable cause.
Amendment Six assures the accused the _____. right to a speedy trial
Amendment Nine talks about the enumeration of rights, and enumeration means a ________. list
The Tenth Amendment gives the rights not expressly delegated to the federal government to the _____. states
group of electors chosen to make the decision of electing the president and vice president of the U.S. electoral college
the extent of authority; the range of control jurisdiction
official and legal authorization for a specific ownership or practice licensing
creation and maintenance of state fire and police departments, hospitals and other citizen needs public safety
the creation and maintenance of state roads, dams, buildings and other similar projects public works
the state testing of potential attorneys in order to see if they qualify for active legal practice state bar exam
formal agreement between two or more governments treaty
government financial aid to assist people in need welfare
Which of the following geographic regions is the wealthiest? Northeast
Which of the following geographic regions is the most politically diverse? west
Which of the following compromises did the Federalists and Anti-Federalists make? separation of powers clause
Which of the following amendments grants power to the states? tenth amendment
According to the Constitution, which of the following powers are reserved for the states? powers not delegated and not prohibited by the Constitution
Lawyers must pass a ______. state bar exam
The power of making laws and enforcing them is called _____. jurisdiction
Arizona, New Mexico, and Nevada must honor the Native American reservation treaties drawn up by the ________ government for the Native American Nations. federal
The creation and maintenance of a state reservoir falls under the jurisdiction of _______. public works
State licensing is usually required for what reasons? marriages, dental practices, auto registration, real estate brokers, lawyers.
Which constitutional amendment gives the states freedoms and control? . tenth amendment
an economic system in which private citizens invest capital into the economy to make a profit capitalism
someone who purchases goods and services for private use consumer
a complete halt on trade between two nations embargo
money spent on goods, services, or programs expenditures
the Federal Reserve; the central bank of the U.S. responsible for regulating the financial system the Fed
a financial situation that occurs when prices rise and the value of money falls inflation
the amounts of money a lender charges borrowers for use of assets interest rates
the practice of transferring government ownership of businesses or properties to the private corporations or individuals privatization
money earned revenue
specific penalties placed on a foreign nation by the U.S. government sanctions
an economic theory in which the supply of and demand for a product determine the product’s price supply and demand
Which of the following is the guiding economic philosophy of the free enterprise system? capitalism
Which of the following roles does the government play in a free enterprise system? – protect the consumer- encourage private investment
Which tool would the government most likely employ during a period of inflation to stabilize the economy? lower cash rates
Which of the following are investments the government might make in the economy? – building a highway- funding a pre-K program- creating a new technological device
Which of the following has the potential to cause inflation? lowering interest rates
Which of the following is a source of revenue for the federal government? income taxes
In which economic system does the government have complete control over manufacturing and production? planned economy
Which tool might be used to limit imports from Cuba but maintain exports to Cuba? sanctions
Which of the following might the government invest in to promote infrastructure growth? physical capital
the development, building, and management of a business, with all of its risks in order to make a profit entrepreneurship
the creation of a new idea, method, or product that the consumer will use innnovation
inventions of the mind that are intangible, such as a piece of writing or architectural design intellectual property
government-issued right to an invention that makes it illegal for anyone else to copy it patent
a term for businesses’ and governments’ research and development divisions, which specialize in researching and developing new ideas R&D
an individual or organization that supplies capital for a business endeavor venture capitalist
Which of the following is a key benefit of the government’s investing in innovation? long-term financial commitment
Which of the following products has the government helped to innovate? – personal computer- internet- GPS
Which type of research would be used if a scientist wanted to know how sugar impacted the growth of cancer cells? basic
Which of the following are the benefits of innovation in society? – economic growth- public interest- better problem-solving
Which of the following policies can the government use to encourage entrepreneurship? issuing tax credits
Which of the following would NOT be protected under patent laws? a corporate logo
Which of the following is a primary benefit of entrepreneurial competition? faster innovation
Which of the following is part of the R&D process? developing a hypothesis
Which of the following is a key factor in the government’s ability to financially invest in science and technology? taxation
describes a performance mainly in pomp and style rather than in accomplishment ceremonial
a series of measures that keep a system from becoming too powerful or too weak checks and balances
U.S. president; carries responsibility of ceremonial duties, foreign affairs and armed forces chief executive
another name for the chief executive; the president of the United States chief of state
the communication and ongoing relationship between America and other nations of the world diplomatic relations
one of the three branches of the U.S. government; mainly enforces federal laws executive branch
fifteen divisions of responsibility that handle the duty of administering the national government executive department
parts of the executive branch that act apart from an interactive network independent agencies
to explain the meaning of; to clarify the definition of interpret
one of the three branches of the U.S. government; interprets federal laws, upholds, or negates them judicial
one of the three branches of the U.S. government; establishes or retracts laws legislative
The executive branch is responsible for which of the following? – national security and defense- enforcing all laws made by the legislative branch- functioning like a CEO of the government- appointing secretaries to oversee several departments of government
T or F The “Beltway mentality” is a desired goal of every presidential administration. false
To ______ means to explain the meaning of, or to clarify the definition of. interpret
The three branches of our government are _____. executive, judicial, legislative
The president is responsible for the communication and ongoing relationship between America and other nations of the world. This is known as _____. diplomatic relations
The president may serve a maximum of ____terms in office. two
According to your understanding of the lesson, the president is responsible for which of the following? Select all that apply. – acting as commander in chief of the armed forces- acting as the executive for departments overseeing the United States Postal Service, the CIA and the Social Security Administration- acting as executive of the office in charge of setting scientific research standards
Which of the following are offices under the jurisdiction of the executive office? – National Security Council- Office of Policy Development- Office of Management and Budget- Council of Economic Advisors- White House Office
If you were vice president, your job would include _____. – taking over if the president became incapacitated- implementing the president’s policies- serving at the pleasure of the president- advancing the policy goals of the executive branch
Which of the following powers does the president have? veto, appointments, deploy military
What happens if no candidate receives at least 270 votes from the Electoral College? The House of Representatives elects the President and the Senate elects the Vice President.
improved; changed; made into a better quality. amended
The divisions of the Constitution addressing certain policies and laws set forth for the country. Article
Any one of the 12 courts of appeal in the various federal districts throughout the United States. circuit courts
Whether the law or act is within the guidelines of the United States Constitution. constitutionality
Charging an official with a misdeed. impeachment
Courts making decisions as to whether laws passed stay within the guidelines of the U.S. Constitution. judicial review
A group of citizens appointed to hear and decide upon a case presented in a court of law. jury
Choose; appoint. nominate
Negate; destroy. nullify
Reverse; change to the opposite position. overturn
The act of the courts interpreting the meaning of laws and administrative rules and regulations. statutory construction
The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land and is part of this branch of government: judiciary
Justices for the Supreme Court are: nominated by the president
The judicial system of courts derives its powers from _______ of the Constitution. Article III
What are three statements that are true about the judicial branch? – The judiciary system is established by the Constitution.- Nine justices serve in the Supreme Court.- There are 12 courts of appeal in the judiciary system.
The four parts of the judicial system include the: – Supreme Court- district courts- Circuit Courts- Court of Veterans’ Appeals
to recommend or suggest advise
a representative of a government; a diplomat who resides in the country where the ambassador is in communication ambassador
to evaluate and set the amount of a tax assess
to agree or accept consent
political competitors contenders
in American politics, situation in which one party controls the House and the other party controls the Senate divided government
presiding officer of the Senate whenever the vice president is not present president pro tempore
ruling; overseeing presiding
recall; cancel repeal
Which of the following are congressional powers? – coining money- overriding a presidential veto- making laws
A ______ is when one party controls the House and another party controls the Senate. divided government
Who is the presiding officer of the Senate whenever the vice president is not present? president pro tempore
The House and Senate have different responsibilities. Which of the following would the House be responsible for? – initiate the impeachment process- levy taxes and determining how interstate shipping is regulated
A diplomat who resides in the country where the diplomat is in communication is a(n) _____. ambassador
This article of the Constitution gives the legislature its powers _____. Article 1
The Senate has ______ senators. The House has _______ representatives. 100, 435
Members of the House of Representatives are elected by the different states on the basis of their population in the ______. most recent US census
The _____ branch of government can create, alter, or repeal laws. legislative
What are the four agencies that are maintained by the legislative branch of the government? – General Accounting Office- Printing Office- Library of Congress- Congressional Budget Office
Which of the following allowed citizens to elect senators to Congress? 17th
discussing, conversing, and even arguing over the points of a matter debating
a brief, “first-step” presentation of a work to be completed draft
a time when the good and bad aspects of a bill are discussed; includes written and verbal statements hearings
legislation that is under the voting process in the House of Representatives House Bill
a bill that becomes a law legislation
when a subcommittee makes changes and add amendments before they recommend a bill to proceed mark up
when a subcommittee reads its recommendation to the rest of their house of Congress ordering a bill reported
a member of Congress who is willing to introduce and back the legislation sponsor
t or f Either the House or Senate can introduce a bill. true
If you wanted to see a law making it mandatory for all 10th grade students to receive a computer from the government for educational purposes, ____. you could draft a piece of legislation then meet with the Representative or her staff and convince them to submit the legislation
If a committee does not act on a bill, it’s the same as if they would have ______. voted it down
T or F H.R. signifies a House bill and S signifies a Senate bill. True
Which of the following situations must all bills go through? – a piece of legislation is approved of and become a House Resolution (HR) or Senate bill (S)- the bill is reviewed by a committee made up of both Democrats and Republicans and “marked up” or amended to reflect the desires of the committee- a bill can be “killed” by a sub-committee- a bill travels a long road through subcommittees and hearings before it is even introduced on the House floor
A brief, “first-step” presentation of a work to be completed is called a _____. draft
A Senator and House Representative do NOT _____. debate each other regarding bills that have made it to the floor
It’s a bad sign for your bill if ________. the subcommittee lets it sit
Legislation that is under the voting process in the House of Representatives is called a(n)_____. house bill
Put the steps that an idea goes through before becoming a law in the correct order. 1. drafted into a bill2. introduced to the desk of HR or S3. assigned bill number4. referred to a committee5. hearing is held6. committee recommends ordering a bill report7. bill placed on HR or S calendar8. Bill passed one house and is moved to the other house of Congress
change or amendment to the bill alteration
a legislative meeting hall chamber
to reach an agreement concurrence
a meeting for discussion conference
group which was formed to reach an agreement on how the final version of a bill would be presented conference committee
Activity concerning a bill which may include debates and compromises. floor action
one of the two chambers in government, either the Senate or the House of Representatives Congress
the time when Congress is active and members are present, fulfilling their respective duties in session
a voting process by the members who are present; no absentee voting allowed roll call vote
a bill that will not be in progress or in any action but will be inactive for a particular time period sit
a form or variation of the original version
For a bill to pass both chambers (the House or Representatives and the Senate are called chambers), which of the following must occur? – it is subject to committee changes, debate and compromise- it often sustains changes in language and amendments in both houses- a bill passed in one chamber that is changed in committee in the second chamber, must both approve the conference report for any changes made to the original bill passed
After a bill is sponsored by a senator and passed a subcommittee’s test, what are the next steps? Select – get approved by the committee – pass the Senate vote, and move to the other chamber
How is the President involved in the process of bills becoming laws? – by drafting legislation and getting a Representative to submit it, just like you can- by letting it sit on his/her desk for ten days and doing nothing- by vetoing legislation that s/he may have drafted
Once a bill passes the House of Representatives _____. it goes through the same big process in the Senate
In any minor change by one house of Congress, the next usual step is for the legislation to go back to the first house for _____. concurrence
Whenever one house of Congress significantly alters a bill _____. a conference committee is formed to reconcile the different versions of the bill

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