Macbeth Test

1485-1660 Years of English Renaissance
Figurative rebirth In English Renaissance, understanding world around them, focus on medical/ scientific.
Literal rebirth In English Renaissance, more population, previous population was decimated by Black Plague
English Renaissance Begins with end of the Wars of the Roses, ends with the Restoration, Tudor family Reign begins the age.
Henry VIII Tudor, called “defender of the faith”- ironic because he destroys the unity of faith because he splits up Church due to Pope’s refusal of his petition to divorce (wife didn’t have a son).Splits Roman Catholic Church over desire to divorce.
Protestant Reformation Creates Church of England (Anglican) and Henry 8 names himself its head.All of GB must convert, leads to deep division- Protestant vs. Catholic- that rules for centuries.
Queen Mary I Henry 8 has no surviving sons, his daughter by his first wife Catherine of Aragon comes to the throne.Catholic and has allegiance to her mother.
Catherine of Aragon Henry 8’s first wife
Counter Reformation Queen Mary I insists the nation convert back to CatholicismNicknamed “Bloody Mary” because she tortures, I prisons, executes those who refuse.
Hysterical pregnancy Mary I isn’t pregnant, but actually thought she was, had physical traits of pregnancy, but not actually pregnant.Had no successors.
1558 Year that Queen Mary I (Bloody Mary) died?
Elizabeth I Daughter of Henry 8, but mom is Anne Boleyn, his second wife.
Anne Boleyn Henry 8 second wife, he broke off the Catholic Church because of her.
“Virgin Queen” Elizabeth I uses her unmarried status for political and international advantage.
Elizabeth I accomplishments Military expansion that brings about the defeat of the Spanish Armada.Colonization to the Americas.Stabilizing religion- Converts England back to Protestantism after Bloody Mary’s death, but allows for tolerance.Emphasis on important of the arts, including music, drama, literature. -Revival is seen in these areas and based on Italian a Renaissance of 14th cent.Focus on education, particularly a well-rounded, liberal arts background.
Humanism Idealistic philosophy that contrasts sharply with Medieval pessimism.Places emphasis on the enormous potential of the individual and idealizes mankind.
James VI of Scotland He became king of England after Elizabeth’s death.Stuart line now reigns (no more Tudors).Emphasizes Divine Right of KingsBelieves in witchcraft, writes Daemonologue and approves of hunting witches.
James I of England The other name for King James VI of Scotland
Divine Right of Kings Belief that the monarch is appointed by God himself and represents a sort of “God” on earth.Makes monarch the ultimate power.
King James accomplishments King James’ Bible- puts Bible in hands of the people, in a language they can understand.
4-23-1563 Date Shakespeare was bron
4-23-1616 Date Shakespeare died
Shakespeare and the Monarchy Elizabeth I was a big supporter of theater.James now on throne, he must find favor again.
Macbeth play A direct appeal for James’ favor.
Reason for Banquo James descends from his line.
Theater were often seen as raunchy houses of filth, king could have easily taken away Shakespeare’s livelihood.Only men allowed to be actors, many prostitues, criminals, drunkenness (similar to Vegas).
Stuart What line is king James
Shakespeare Source and Language Holinshed’s Chronicles- he flips this Chronicle story in Macbeth, Duncan from terrible->good.Begins the period known as “modern English”Not yet standardized, he coins many new words are added to the English language.
Exposition Background info to set the scene, almost never going to begin with protagonist (tragic hero). Macbeth begins with this.Also gives reader relevant context.
Blank verse Unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter
Shakespeare “setting the scene/tone/mood” Witches- 1st characters we meet.Thunder and lightning- weather as symbol to set mood/tone. -Shows that witches have evil intent (appeals to King James).
Mood How reader feels
Tone Author’s attitude, emotion words
Act 1 scene 2 This establishes:Witches are evilWitches have real power -Can prophesy -Can insert themselves into people’s lives.
Paradox A statement that contradicts itself, yet is somehow true.Ex: Fair is foul and foul is fair. (Cf. to McB 1st line- “so fair and foul a day I haven’t seen”). Ex: Good is bad and bad is good.
13th-14th century Time setting that Macbeth takes place in
Act 1 scene 2 “Bloody man”, Duncan, Thanes- (Lennox, Rosse, Angus), info on the war/ battles.
Macbeth character First thing we hear:He kills a traitor- “unseamed from nave to chops” -Shows he has strength in battle- physical and mental. -Violence is an approved method of war, he is willing to do it. -Loyalty to Scotland and the King (Duncan).
Tragic Hero Apex-> Abyss, tragic flaw leads to tragic fall
Thane of Cawdor Original was a traitor, Duncan orders him to be executed, gives the title to Macbeth, IRONIC/FORESHADOW- Macbeth will betray the king too (will kill him).
Malcolm, Donalbane Duncan’s sons
Lady Macbeth Ahead of her time as a woman- literate, passionate, ideas for ambition, cunning (seen in Act 2 scene1).Sees being a woman as a hinderance to her goals-> subverts “invocation of the muse.” -Appeals to dark/demonic spirits for help: “unsex me here” (gender).Defined understanding of what it means to be a man or woman- needs to be stripped of maternal instincts.
Gender roles Man (masculine)- cruelty, acting without guilt, ruthlessness, evil, killing, violent, life taking.Feminine- Easily led, kind, violent, life giving.
Monologue Long speech by one character to him/herself or audience.Shows a characters true thought process.
Natural order Elizabethan concept of “The Great Chain of Being”God->Monarchy->Nobility->Commoners->slaves->animals.When this is violated, everything in nature may enter into chaos until it is righted.
Ambiguity about Macbeth family Natural order- what is natural?Lady M says she has nursed a baby- means she has to have had a baby, no evidence of baby. -Either the baby died or Shakespeare made a mistake.If they have no kids, could be seen as unnatural.
Fleance, Macduff’s son Kids in Macbeth play
Juxtaposition Porter scene is in between Duncan’s death and before discovery of his body.Male children is what Macbeth wants.Fleance and Banquo- natural father-son relationship, something McB doesn’t have, ends up destroying this.
Prose vs. Poetry Shakespeare writes in blank verse unless: -Intoxication-Mental illness/ insanity-Uneducated/ Lower classSwitches from poetry (high brow) to prose (low brow).
Poetry High brow type of writing, ordered mind
Prose Low brow type of writing , disordered mind
Wyrd sisters Elizabethan, symbolizes fate (from Anglo-Saxon times)
Fortune Fate symbolized as a lady/woman (starts in Medieval times).
Catharsis Whole audience experiences this, Aristotlean rule of Tragedy- the play should allow viewers to experience full range of human emotions.Feelings purged, leaving audiences spent.
Motifs Sleep- Part of Lady M’s problem, hands, birds, water, colors- green, white, red, black, hell, weather, clothing, dark vs. light, children/babies
Death of Duncan Happens offstageMurder of King- Divine Right- James would have hated a staged killing- could inspire other murderers.We see this event through Lady M’s perspective
The Porter Comic relief (but more than that).”Porter of hell gate” -Symbolic representation of M’s castle- evil spirit envied, murderous violence, anti-God killing of king, knocking (Macduff)- foreshadow-> restoration of Justice.As murder is being committed, Macduff- knocking (good trying to overcome evil).
Equivocation Jesuits, ambiguity- telling neither the truth nor a lie. -Leaves open many interpretations -Power of manipulation of language
Aside One or more characters have a secret conversational words that the audience hears but other characters don’t.Ex: Act 2 Scene 3, 92-97.
Dumb show Unable to speak, silent representation of the future.
Seward Son and dad, McB will destroy this familial bond, reoccurring theme (Banquo and Fleance, etc).
Prophecy Fate is fate- can’t be stopped, can it be catalyzed? Changed?Hubris
Hubris Means pride, how does it RELATE??? McB going against prophecy?
Act 2 Scene 4 Purpose- outside source that doesn’t know what McB did but acknowledges differences in nature.Masculinity- Violence, willingness to kill. -Macduff opposed to when Malcolm wants him to kill McB, says he needs to “feel it” first (grieve). -Macduff defies masculinity stereotype?
Prince of Cumberland This is Malcoms title after his father, Duncan, gave it to him. It is a step away from being named the King of Scotland.
Guy Fawkes Tried to assassinate James I in the gunpowder plot of 1605, planning to blow up the House of Parliament in England. GB’s most notorious traitor.
Dramatic irony Irony that is understood by the audience but not grasped by the characters in the play.
Caesarean section Part of the prophecy, Macduff was born this way and reveals this while fighting Macbeth in the end.
Omen/portent Used to show the unnatural order and presence of evil(or dark) in the play. Usually represented by a crow or some bird.
Arc of Narrative Play starts and ends in one place (Lady M killing Duncan), return to this scene. -Role reversal- Lady M can’t cope with guilt, McB becomes killing machine (Her hands will never be clean).
Inverness Macbeths castle

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