Macbeth study guide

publication date 1606
ruler of england during this time & history king james i, play was meant to compliment him, lots of references
denouement and example falling action/resolution, macbeth dying and malcolm becoming king
hamartia tragic flaw/biggest problem/flaw of character, macbeth’s greed
foil a character who contrasts with another character, banquo and macbeth
theme subject/moral/lesson learned, what goes around comes around
nemesis an archenemy, macduff and macbeth
parallel episode things happening to a character again differently/to different character, macbeth getting killed
simile comparison using like or as, “but like a man he died”
apostrophe speaker is speaking to something that cannot hear, “come, you spirits that tend on mortal thoughts”
metaphor simile without like or as, “they have tied me to a stake”
onomatopoeia formation of a word without an associated sound, sizzle
symbol an object or idea that represents something else, serpent/blood
scene of suffering a scene where bad things are reflected on or felt, when macbeth starts to go crazy
paradox self contradictory, “when the battle’s lost and won”
peripeteia deed ironically backfires/reversal of fortune, macbeth going crazy after the murders
hubris excessive self pride, when macbeth finds out he’s going to be king
anagnorisis re recognize or to find out/tragic hero says “oops my bad”, how macbeth was ripped from the womb
catastrophe big problem, deaths
irony what is said means the opposite, duncan trusting macbeth
analogy comparison of two things, loyal subjects=good garden
hyperbole exaggeration, cant’s wash blood/filling the sea with blood
understatement a situation is made to seem less important than it is, lady macbeth towards duncan’s murder
fair is foul and foul is fair witches to no one in particular, but basically macbeth, first scene: paradox, people may seem good or bad but can actually be the opposite. lead macbeth to greatness but destroy him eventually
loo like the innocent flower/but be the serpent under’t lady macbeth to macbeth, telling him to be a man and kill duncan, I.v.: simile; makes macbeth want to kill duncan, look innocent but be evil inside/be unexpected
come you spirits/that tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here,/and fill me from the crown to the toe top-full/of direst cruelty lady macbeth to herself, after he gets letter that he’ll be king, I.v.: she wants to be more manly so she can kill duncan
out, damned spot, out, I say! One, two./why then, ’tis time to do’t. hell is murky. fie, my/lord, fie, a soldier and afeard? what need we fear/who knows it, when none can call our power to/account lady macbeth, doctor/gentlewoman are watching her sleepwalk, V.i: it shows her guiltiness is showing through, spots=blood
thou hast it now-king, cawdor, glamis, all/as the weird women promised, and I ear/thou played’st most foully for ‘it banquo to himself, he is suspicious of macbeth, III.i: macbeth has everything, as the weird sisters said, but banquo is suspicious that macbeth may have killed duncan
the time has been/that , when the brains were out, the man would die,/and there an end. but now they rise again/with twenty mortal muders on their crowns/and push us from our stools. this is more strange/than such a murder is[…]/do not muse at me, my most worthy friends./I have a strange infirmity, which is nothing/to those that know me. macbeth, aside to himself, but lady macbeth, ross, lennox, lords, other attendants are there, banquet scene, III.iv.: he is guilty; he feels haunted. he then tries to hide his issue from the guests
there’s no art/to find the mind’s construction in the face./he was a gentleman on whom I built/an absolute trust king duncan to malcolm, after malcolm tells him the thane of cawdor was executed, I.iv.: he’s basically saying “you can’t trust anyone. I trusted that guy”, dramatic irony
time, though anticipat’st my dread exploits./the flighty purpose never is o’ertook/unless the deed go with it. from this moment/the very firstlings of my heart shall be/the firstlings of my hand macbeth to himself, but witches and lennox are there, he just found out that macduff fled to england, IV.i: he’s saying he isn’t going to think before he acts anymore, tragic flaw
macbeth ambitious, easily tempted; main character
banquo sympathetic, nice guy, macbeth’s co-conspirator
donalbain smart, heir to throne, flees to ireland
duncan generous, nice, wants best for kingdom, macbeth’s first murder
fleance banquo’s son, survives macbeth’s murder attempt, may rule scotland
hecate goddess of witchcraft, rules the 3 witches
lady macbeth ambitious strong, badass, main character (hopefully you know about her lol)
macduff quiet, respected, loyal to country, because of his suspicion, everyone questions the king
malcolm afraid, smart, duncan’s son flees to england, puts together an army to regain his throne
porter comic relief, doorkeeper
ross macduff’s cousin, tells macbeth that the witches say he’ll be king
siward leader of english army that defeats macbeth
young siward dies fighting macbeth, which gives macbeth confidence
act I establishes character personalities, sets tone of macbeth relationship, background info on witches, duncan death foreshadowed, thane of cawdor title opportunity
act II banquo suspects macbeth, dagger soliloquy, porter scene, duncan death (macbeth won’t sleep), duncan’s sons leave, ends in heroic couplet. farmer metaphor, ross soliloquy
act III banquo still suspects macbeth, macbeth plots to kill banquo, macbeth convinces murderers, banquo killed=macbeth get paranoid, the dinner and talk with killer, lennox and other suspect macbeth as duncan’s killer, macduff leaves for england
act IV meet hecate and 3 ghosts, “no man of woman”, macbeth: mental state is revealed, macbeth decides to kill macduff, lady macduff comic relief, macduff says he thinks malcolm is worse than macbeth
act V lady macbeth completely loses it, messenger tells macbeth about birnam, gentlewoman and doctor talk about sickness, lady macbeth dies, metaphors used to say that someone must be king, macbeth loses loyalty, witches taunt him, macbeth is killed by macduff
example: a disruption of order creates tension when duncan is killed people flip
unnatural dealings lead to chaos death once again
appearances do not always match with reality lady macbeth initiating all of the deaths
there are consequences to disrupting the natural order of the world all the deaths again

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