Macbeth Review

Duncan King of Scotland. Macbeth murders him from selfish attempt to achieve the crown. “Kindly and trusting older man”
Malcolm and Donalbain Duncan’s Sons. They flee Scotland after their fathers death. One is the Prince of Cumberland.
Macbeth Thame Of Glamis. “Macbeth is a general in the king’s army and originally the Thane of Glamis” Eventually he is murdered by Macduff. Shows not an evil, but a weakness of character.
Lady Macbeth “What Macbeth lacks in decisiveness, Lady Macbeth makes up for in bloodthirsty lust for power and wealth.” She is the stronger character of her husband.
Seyton Macbeth’s servant
Two Murderers Hired by Macbeth to kill Banquo, Fleance, Lady Macduff, and Macduff’s son.
A Porter “Provides comic relief with his account of ‘hell-portering'”
Banquo Thane of Locaber. A general in Duncan’s army. Banquo does not act to fulfill the prophecies. Appears after dying as a ghost to Macbeth. Commander of Duncan’s army with Macbeth.
Fleance Banquo’s son.
Macduff “Scottish nobleman who questions Macbeth’s tyrannical rule and refuses to recognize him as king” Follows Malcom to England, then showing his “true faithfulness to Scotland”
Lady Macduff “A kind and motherly foil for Lady Macbeth’s lack of feminine sympathies, she is killed along with her children after Macduff flees Scotland.”
Lennox “A Scottish noble who gradually questions Macbeth’s tyrannical rule.” He and Macduff come to waken Duncan in the morning to find him dead.
Ross Macbeth’s cousin. Scottish nobleman who eventually turns on Macbeth. In Scottish army with Agnus. Talks with Old Man of the strange happenings, including horses eating each other.
Angus, Menteith, and Caithness “Scottish nobles who join with Malcolm and the English forces in opposing Macbeth.”
Siward Duncan’s brother. Leads English Army against Macbeth.
Young Siward Siward’s son, slain by Macbeth in combat.
Hecate Queen of the witches
Three Witches/ The Weird Sisters “The witches foresee Macbeth’s ascent to power and his defeat, as well as the succession of Banquo’s line”
Additional Characters Three Messengers Three ServantsA LordA SoldierA Captain in Duncan’s armyAn Old ManAn English DoctorAn Scottish Doctor A Scottish GentlewomanMacduff’s son
MacDonwald and the Thane of Cawdor Two Scottish rebels who oppose Duncan.
Duncans Chamberlains Blamed for Duncans Murder.
Allusion Figure of speech that makes a reference to, or representation of, a place, event, literary work, myth, or work of art, either directly or indirectly.
Personification Giving human qualitites to an object or thing.
Hyperbole An exaggerated statement.
Verbal Irony A figure of speech in which what is said is the opposite of what is meant
Blank Verse Unrymed verse form.
Other Terms Iambic Pentameter (measure of rhythm in line of poetry, 10 syllables)Rhyming coupletEnjambment
Messenger Tells Lady Macduff to take her children and run away.
Doctor and Lady See Lady Macbeth sleepwalking
The Three Prophecies 1. “A floating head warns him to beware Macduff”2. Then a bloody child appears and tells him that “none of woman born / shall harm Macbeth” 3. Crowned child holding a tree tells him that he is safe until Birnam Wood moves to Dunsinane Hill
fair is foul, and foul is fair (1.1.12) all witches to all witchesmajor theme- appearances vs. reality. something good is bad, something bad is good
what he hath lost, noble Macbeth hath won. (1.2.78) Duncan to RossThane of Cawdor will die, Macbeth will replace him
all hail, Macbeth! Hail to thee, Thane of Glamis! all hail, Macbeth! hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor! All hail, Macbeth, that shall be king thereafter! (1.3.51-53) all witches to Macbeth and BanquoMacbeth knows he is Thane of Glamis, he doesnt know that he is going to be Thane of Cawdor but we do, king is foreshadowing
lesser than Macbeth and greater. not so happy, yet much happier. thou shalt get kings, though thou be none. (1.3.68-70) witches to banquo Banquo’s kids will be king and his line will carry on
the Thane of Cawdor lives, why do you dress me in borrowed robes? (1.3.114-115) Macbeth to Ross, Angus, Banquohe is unaware that the thane of cawdor has died/was a traitor. doesn’t understand why he would just take his “robes” if they still belong to Cawdor.
this supernatural soliciting cannot be ill, cannot be good… I am Thane of Cawdor. If good, why do i yield to that suggestion whose horrid image doth unfix my hair… Present fears are less than horrible imaginings. My thought, whose murder is yet but fantastical, shakes so my single state of man that function is smothered in surmise, and nothing is but what is not. Macbeth to self This supernatural temptation doesn’t seem like it can be a bad thing, but it can’t be good either. If it’s a bad thing, why was I promised a promotion that turned out to be true? Now I’m the thane of Cawdor, just like they said I would be. But if this is a good thing, why do I find myself thinking about murdering King Duncan, a thought so horrifying that it makes my hair stand on end and my heart pound inside my chest? The dangers that actually threaten me here and now frighten me less than the horrible things I’m imagining.
Glamis thou art, and Cawdor, and shalt be what thou art promised. Yet I do fear thy nature; it is too full o’ th’ milk of human kindness to catch the nearest way. Thou wouldst be great, art not with ambition…(1.5.15-19) Lady Macbeth to selfWants macbeth to be king but thinks he is too kind to act manly and do what it takes to be king. Macbeth wants to be a good man, doesn’t want to cheat to get what he wants
Come, you spirits that tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here, and fill me from the crown to the toe top-full of direst cruelty. Make thick my blood. Stop up th’ access and passage to remorse, that no compunctious visitings of nature shake my fell purpose, nor keep peace between th’ effect and it. Come to my woman’s breasts and take my milk for gall, you murd’ring ministers, wherever in your slightless substances you wait on nature’s mischief. Come, thick night, and pall thee in the dunnest smoke of hell, that my keen knife see not the wound it makes, nor heaven peep through the blanket of the dark to cry “Hold, hold!” (1.5.47-61) Lady Macbeth to selfShe calls upon evil, asking to be more like a man so that she can kill duncan without guilt or sadness/emotion.
If it were done when ’tis done, then ’twere well it were done quickly. if th’ assassination could trammel up the consequence and catch with his surcease success, that but this blow might be the be-all and the end-all here, but here, upon this bank and shoal of time, we’d jump the life to come. But in these cases we still have judgement here, that we but teach bloody instructions, which, being taught, return to plague th’ inventor. This even-handed justice commends th’ ingredience of our poisoned chalice to our own lips. he’s here in double trust: First, as I am his kinsman and his subject, strong both against the deed; then, as his host, who should against his murderer shut the door, not bear the knife myself…(1.7.1-16) Macbeth to selfCrimes have consequences, looking at reasons why he shouldn’t kill duncan. He should be protecting duncan, etc.
I dare do all that may become a man. Who dares to do more is none. (1.7.51-52) Macbeth to lady macbethhe will do what a man is meant to dodoing more=not a man
when you durst do it, then you were a man (1.7.56) Lady macbeth to macbethtesting macbeth’s manliness.
is this a dagger which i see before me, the handle toward my hand? come, let me clutch thee…or art thou but a dagger of the mind, a false creation proceeding from the heat-oppresséd brain? (2.1.44-51) macbeth to self (soliloquy)imagining the dagger, freaking out about murder, guilt already in his heart.
Still it cried “Sleep no more!” to all the house. “Glamis hath murdered sleep, and therefore Cawdor shall sleep no more. Macbeth shall sleep no more.” (2.2.54-57) macbeth to lady macbethhaunted by guilt, can never sleep again
the night has been unruly. where we lay, our chimneys were blown down…the obscure bird clamored the livelong night. some say the earth was feverous and did shake. (2.3.61-69) Lennox to macbethnature is acting weird/strange.
O gentle lady, ’tis not for you to hear what i can speak. the repetition in a woman’s ear would murder as it fell. (2.3.96-99) macduff to lady macbethwomanly ears cant handle deathirony
Who can be wise, amazed, temp’rate, and furious, loyal, and neutral, in a moment? no man. th’ expedition of my violent love outrun the pauser, reason. (2.3.127-130) macbeth to macduff, malcolm, donalbain, lennox/ the roomCLEVER COVER. says: if they killed king, of course he would kill them, expresses his loyalty to duncan.loves duncan so much, reason lost, emotions took over.
and duncan’s horses…turned wild in nature, broke their stalls, flung out, contending ‘gainst obedience, as they would make war with mankind. (2.4.17-22) ross to duncanhorses turn wild, nature is acting strange (reaction to unnatural actions)
They hailed him father to a line of kings upon my head they placed a fruitless crown and put a barren scepter in my grip, thence to be wrenched with an unlineal hand, no son of mine succeeding. If’t be so, for Banquo’s issue have I filed my mind; for them the gracious Duncan have I murdered. (3.1.65-71) Macbeth to selfdoesnt trust Banquo, doesnt want Banquo’s son to be king, super jelly of banquo, afraid of banquo, and paranoia from guilt
It will have blood, they say; blood will have blood. (3.4.152) Macbeth to Lady MBthose that were killed will seek vengence
Who cannot want the thought how monstrous it was for malcolm and for donalbain to kill their gracious father? Damnéd fact, how it did grieve Macbeth! Did he not straight in pious rage the two delinquents tear that were the slaves of drink and thralls of sleep? was not that nobly done? (3.6.10-15) Lennox to Lordthinks Macbeth is the murderer, everything he says is sarcastic
Double, double toil and trouble (4.1.10) All Witches making life worse for Macbeth, double work, double trouble
Macbeth! Macbeth! Macbeth! Beware Macduff! Beware the Thane of Fife! Dismiss me. Enough. (4.1.81-82) First Apparition(Armed Head=head with armor) to Macbethsaying beware Macduff
Be bloody, bold, and resolute. Laugh to scorn the power of man, for none of woman born shall harm Macbeth. (4.1.90-92) Second Apparition(Bloody Child) to Macbetha man not born of woman can harm Macbeth
Macbeth shall never vanquished be until great Birnam Wood to high Dunsinane Hill shall come against him. (4.1.105-107) Third Apparition(child crowned with tree in hand) to MacbethMacbeth will not be vanquished unless Birnam Wood moves
That will never be. Who can impress the forest, bid the tree unfix his earthbound root?…Shall live the lease of nature, pay his breath to time and mortal custom. (4.1.108-114) Macbeth to Apparition and WitchesIts not going to happen, Macbeth will live the natural course of life
What, will the line stretch out to th’ crack of doom? Another yet? A seventh? I’ll see no more. And yet the eighth appears who bears a glass which shows me many more, and some I see…for the blood-boltered Banquo smiles upon me and points at them for his. (4.1.132-139) Macbeth to Apparitions and Witchesall are the children of Banquo who will be kings, mirror/glass shows even more kings
Infected be the air whereon they ride, and damned all those that trust them! I did hear the galloping of horse. (4.1.157-159) Macbeth to LennoxCursing anyone who trusts the witches, curses him self because he believed in them
The very firstlings of my heart shall be the firstlings of my hand. And even now, to crown my thoughts with acts, be it thought and done (4.1.167-170) Macbeth to selfno longer acting with reason, just reaction
Alas, poor country, almost afraid to know itself. It cannot be called our mother, but our grave, where nothing but who knows nothing is once seen to smile; where sighs and groans and shrieks that rent the air are made, not marked; where violent sorrow seems a modern ecstasy. The dead man’s knell is there scarce asked for who, and good men’s lives expire before the flowers in their caps, dying or ere they sicken. (4.3.189-198) Ross to Macduff and MalcolmSays what people are thinking- everyone hates Macbeth. The country suffers under Macbeth’s rule.
this push will cheer me ever or disseat me now. I have lived long enough. My way of life is fall’n into the sere, the yellow leaf, and that which should accompany old age, as honor, love, obedience, troops of friends, I must not look to have, but in their stead curses, not loud but deep, mouth-honor, breath which the poor heart would fain deny and dare not. (5.3.24-33) macbeth to selfacceptance of death, realizes he has nothing, fight will either keep him king or take him away from the throne, people say they are loyal but are not
Both more and less have given the revolt, both more and less have given him the revolt, and none serve with him but constrained things whose hearts are absent too. (5.4.16-18) Malcolm to soldiers, macduff, siwardpeople only fight for macbeth because they have to
Armed Head/First Apparition is Macduff, he is the soldier that kills Macbeth
Bloody Child/Second Apparition is Macduff, he is the baby birthed not of woman
Child with crown and tree branches/Third Apparition is Malcolm, he becomes king and brings the battle to Macbeth
of this dead butcher and his fiend-like queen (who, as ’tis thought, by self and violent hands, took off her life) Malcolm to Allbutcher is macbeth he goes crazy and kills everyonelady macbeth cant handle guilt, takes own lifeIN THE END: MACDUFF KILLS MACBETH AND MALCOLM BECOMES KING.
“Lesser than Macbeth and greater…Not so happy, yet much happier.” -act 1 scene 3 lines 66-67: “ The witches are talking to Banquo- we are confused. However, after reading the whole play we, as readers, understand that the witches were playing on the different meanings of happy and the varying ways someone can be “lesser” or “greater” than another.
“And oftentimes, to win us to our harm, the instruments of darkness tell us truths, win with honest trifles, to betray’s in deepest consequence.” Act 1 scene 3 lines 125-128.: Banquo is warning Macbeth that the witches might be trying to deceive them. Banquo is warning Macbeth that the witches might be trying to deceive them. dark instruments= witches, they be tellin the truth!
“It is a peerless kinsman.” -act 1 scene 4 lines line 60: King Duncan says this to Banquo about Macbeth. It means Macbeth is a man without equal. Irony!
“Look like th’ innocent flower, but be the serpent under ‘t.” act 1 scene 5 lines 67-68: Lady Macbeth says this to Macbeth, uses simile and metaphor. Means “look innocent, but have a deadly plan”
“If it were done when ’tis done, then ’twere well it were done quickly.” Act 1 scene 7 line 1-2. : Macbeth says this to himself, when thinking about possibly killing Duncan. He thinks it would be best to get it done quickly and without consequence.
“When you durst do it, then you were a man; And to be more than what you were, you would be so much more the man.” act 1 scene 7 lines 49-51: Lady Macbeth says this to Macbeth, implying he is not a man unless he dares to kill Duncan.
“I am settled, and bend up each corporal agent to this terrible feat. Away, and mock the time with fairest show. False face must hide what the false heart doth know.” act 1 scene 7 lines 79-82 Macbeth says this to Lady Macbeth. It means: “Now I’m decided, and I will exert every muscle in my body to commit this crime. Go now, and pretend to be a friendly hostess. Hide with a false pleasant face what you know in your false, evil heart.”
“I go, and it is done. The bell invites me. Hear it not, Duncan, for it is a knell that summons thee to heaven or to hell.” -act 2 scene 1 lines 62-64: Macbeth says this during a soliloquy. He is on his way to kill Duncan. The bell he is referring to is the signal from Lady Macbeth and means the guards are passed out. This is also an allusion to the funeral bell.
“‘sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep’ – then innocent sleep, sleep that knits up the raveled sleave of care, The death of each day’s life, sore labor’s bath, balm of hurt minds, great nature’s second course, chief nourisher in life’s feast.” Act 2 scene 2 lines 33-38: Macbeth says this to Lady Macbeth after killing Duncan. MENTAL BREAKDOWN OVER HERE. Haunted by guilt, will never have peaceful nights, he will be sleepless. Modern Translation: I thought I heard a voice cry, “Sleep no more! Macbeth is murdering sleep.” Innocent sleep. “Sleep that soothes away all our worries. Sleep that puts each day to rest. Sleep that relieves the weary laborer and heals hurt minds. Sleep, the main course in life’s feast, and the most nourishing.” We see the motif of sleep.
“This is a sorry sight.” Act 2 Scene 2 line 18: Macbeth says this in reference to the blood on his hands after murdering Duncan.
“Go get some water and wash this filthy witness from your hand.” act 2 scene 2 lines 44-45 Lady Macbeth says to Macbeth, meaning “go was the blood off your hands”. Blood symbolizes guilt here.
“Will all great Neptune’s oceans wash this blood clean from my hand? No, this my hand will rather the multitudinous seas incarnadine, making the green one red.” Act 2 scene 2 lines 57-60 Macbeth (after murdering Duncan) says his hands will always have Duncan’s blood on them. (He can not erase what he has done).
“My hands are of your color, but I shame to wear a heart so white.” act 2 scene 2 lines 61-62: Here Lady Macbeth is insulting Macbeth’s weakness, saying she is stronger than he is.
“Shake off this downy sleep, death’s counterfeit, and look on death itself.” act 2 scene 3 lines 71-72: MacDuff says this, alerting everyone at Inverness that Duncan is dead. Modern: “Shake off sleep, which looks like death, and look at death itself!”
“Where we are, there’s daggers in men’s smiles.” act 2 scene 3 lines 135-136 Donalbain says this to Malcolm. Uses figurative language. Modern translation: Wherever we go, men will smile at us while hiding daggers.
“Tis safer to be that which we destroy than by destruction dwell in doubtful joy.” Act 3 scene 2 lines 8-9: Lady Macbeth says to herself. “It’s better to be the person who gets murdered than to be the killer and be tormented with anxiety.” (descent into depression)
“There the grown serpent lies. The worm that’s fled hath nature that in time will venom breed; no teeth for th’ present.” 3.4 lines 29-31 Macbeth says this to the murderers in reference to Banquo’s (the grown serpent) death, and Fleance (the worm) who got away. “The adult snake lies in the ditch. The young snake that escaped will in time become poisonous and threatening, but for now he has no fangs.”
“I am in blood/Stepped in so far that, should I wade no more,/Returning were as tedious as go o’er.”- 3.4 lines 136-138 Macbeth says this in reference to his next course of action (involving Macduff): “I am in bloodStepped in so far that, should I wade no more,Returning were as tedious as go o’er.”
“By the pricking of my thumbs,/Something wicked this way comes.” – 4.1 lines 44-47 One of the witches; “I can tell by the tingling in my fingers that something evil is coming.” Macbeth enters.
“Be this the whetstone of your sword. Let grief Convert to anger. Blunt not the heart, enrage it.” 4.3 line 234-235 Malcolm says this to Macduff after they learn MacDuff’s family has been murdered by Macbeth’s men. He tells him to let his grief sharpen his sword. Translation: “Let this anger sharpen your sword. Transform your grief into anger. Don’t block the feelings in your heart; let them loose as rage.”
“Out, damned spot! out, I say!”- 5.1 line 30 Lady Macbeth says this while sleep walking; she is trying to get a spot of blood off of her hand. symbolism – blood = guilt.
“Unnatural deeds do breed unnatural troubles.” Act 5 scene 1 lines 61-62 The doctor says this in reference to Lady Macbeth’s sleep-walking. translation: “Unnatural acts will cause supernatural things to happen.” Sleepwalking and sleep talking were considered supernatural events in Shakespeares time.
“Those he commands move online in command, nothing in love. Now does he feel his title/Hang loose about him, like a giant’s robe/Upon a dwarfish thief.” 5.2 lines 19-22 Angus says this about Macbeth: “The soldiers he commands are only following orders. They don’t fight because they love Macbeth. Now he seems too small to be a great king, like a midget trying to wear the robes of a giant.” Symbolism/Figurative Language – robes represent title/position
“To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow,/Creeps in this petty pace from day to day/To the last syllable of recorded time,/And all our yesterdays have lighted fools/The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle!/Life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player/That struts and frets his hour upon the stage/And then is heard no more: it is a tale/Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury,/Signifying nothing.” – 5.5 lines 19-28 After learning of Lady Macbeth’s death, Macbeth says this to himself (soliloquy): “She would have died later anyway. That news was bound to come someday. Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow. The days creep slowly along until the end of time. And every day that’s already happened has taken fools that much closer to their deaths. Out, out, brief candle. Life is nothing more than an illusion. It’s like a poor actor who struts and worries for his hour on the stage and then is never heard from again. Life is a story told by an idiot, full of noise and emotional disturbance but devoid of meaning.”
“Despair thy charm, and let the angel whom thou still hast served tell the, Macduff was from his mother’s womb/Untimely ripped.”- 5.8 lines 13-16 Macduff says this to Macbeth. This is when Macbeth realized he has been tricked by the witches through equivocal phrasing. Translation: “You can forget about your charm. The evil spirit you serve can tell you that I was not born. They cut me out of my mother’s womb before she could bear me naturally.”
What is the setting of Macbeth? Scotland in the 11th century
Who was the king of Scotland at the beginning of Macbeth? Duncan
Who was the Thane of Fife, Nobleman of Scotland? Macduff
Who was the son of Banquo? Fleance
What is the theme of the entire play (quote)? “Fair is foul and foul is fair”
Who is Malcolm the son of? Duncan
Who puts the idea of killing Duncan in Macbeth’s head? Lady Macbeth
“A little water clears us of this deed.” Who says this? Lady Macbeth
How many murders did Macbeth send to kill Banquo? 2
Who escapes? Fleance
Who shows up at the banquet and how does Macbeth act? The Ghost of Banquo, Macbeth freaks out. Lady Macbeth covers it up by saying it is the stress of being king
What was the 1st apparition? An armored head (A war is coming, guard your thoughts)
What was the 2nd apparition? A bloody child (no one born of a woman can harm Macbeth)
What was the 3rd apparition? A crowned child with a tree (your children will have land and be king)
What country does Malcolm go to after they find out Duncan has been murdered? England
What country did Donalbain flee to? Ireland
Who was Macbeth’s servant? Seyton
Who was the general of the English forces and Earl of Northumberland? Siward
What were the 3 witches known as? The Weird Sisters
What were the witches 3 predictions? Macbeth will become Thane of Cawdor, Glamis and King. Banquo’s children will be kings
Who are the Nobleman of Scotland Lenox, Ross, Menteth, Angus, Cathness
Who is Banquo? General in Duncan’s army
Who is the main general of Duncan’s army? Macbeth
Where is Macbeth’s castle located? Inverness
Who kills Macbeth? Macduff
How does Macbeth die? English and Scottish (revolt) join forces
Who becomes king after Macbeth dies? Malcolm
Who said, “Is this the dagger in which I seek?” Macbeth

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