strange screams of death sibilance-hissing sound-snake-personification-death is ironically being personified and may suggest that the earth is hell after duncan’s death or could be foreshadowing macbeth’s trip to hell as Macbeth has lost his soul- description of sounds are horrible
some say the earth was feverous and did shake personification-disruption of natural order as it’s not normal- impact of duncan’s death- earth is ill so death of Duncan was like a disease that spread to so many-shake in fury-parallel between jesus and Duncan as earth shakes at both deaths-emphasises the wrongful act of regicide
The raven himself is hoarse that croaks foreshadow-raven is symbolic to death- can’t warn duncan-croaks is euphenism for death-hoarse means lost voice- unnatural
fair is foul and foul is fair, hover through the fog and filthy illusion leads to a greater truth that nothing is as it seems- oxymoron and repetition-theme of reality-dark atmosphere foreshadows the events of the play as it’s in the beginning- alliteration of f sounds is soft- “fog and filthy air.” – pathetic fallacy & foreshadowing- unnatural and link to witchcraft as reversed-starts off play by exposing dark and ugly side of human nature – ‘fog’ adds to mysterious element in the atmosphere as everything is unclear and so foreshadows unexpected events that’s about to occur- ‘filthy’ reinforces this effect but suggests that things are about to get ‘filthy’, potentially referring to the future event of macbeth’s killing spree- macbeth echoes this line, linking him to them and foreshadowing the harmful effects of their prophecy- also links to the theme of deception and how things on the outside may be different on the inside.
weary sennights nine times nine/Shall he dwindle peak and pine synonyms alliteration and repetition-nine represents finality and judgement in bible which refers to judgement of Macbeth and reinforces this judgement due to the repetition-synonyms emphasise the extreme suffering that will be inflicted on the sailor and is supported by ‘weary sennights’
to win us to our harm, the instruments of darkness tell us truths metaphor – ‘instrument’s is a symbolism for the witches and emphasises the withes’ ‘game’ and therefore they are playing them both – ‘darkness’ reinforces their evil – assumption of the witches being fraudsters shows he is more cautious than Macbeth-win-persuasion-reinforeces their ability to persuade someone to kill the king

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