Macbeth: Elements of a Tragedy

High born person important person
tragic hero he undoes himself; has a downfall
tragic flaw imperfection; characteristic within that causes one’s downfall
catastrophe fall from grace
causality snowball effect, chain reaction; if you change one thing it wouldn’t have happened; this causes this to happen and this causes this to happen
comic relief a moment of levity, joking to enable you to get rid of tension
hubris extreme pride and arrogance that brings his downfall
catharsis emotional cleansing, make peace
antagonist opposes main character, can be things, not necessarily a villain
protagonist main character
theme main idea; what the author wants reader to remember
plot how story is organized
prologue introduction before story
chorus give commentary, information
soliloquy spoke by 1 person, when no one is present; value is when character is speaking, you know they are not lying to themselves
monologue spoken by 1 person when others are present
aside when “wisher” something so others characters don’t hear; macbeth does this with Banquo so others don’t hear his secret thoughts
pun play on words
comedies, histories, tragedies 3 types of Shakespeare’s p;ays
commedies funny
histories based on facts, historically based
tragedies bad things
dialogue know dealing with drama when see this
blank verse usually written in iambic pentameter, wheat Shakespeare uses, only used when nobleman speak not commoners
iambic pentameter one stressed syllable followed by stressed one; aim is 1 metrical foot of poetry; pentameter is repeated 5 times every line
concept of order if one thing is out of order everything is out of order; if a character does something evil, against nature, nature responds; natural occasions occur
“eternal jewel” soul; macbeth was willing to give it up for kingship- Faust Legend
character/dramatic foils characters who’s opposites bring out each other’s character traits; example is Macbeth and Banquo
Faust Legend belief one could sell soul to devil for financial gain
crisis of conscience weighing options, decisions and what consequences they will bring
Elizabethan period time of writing in early 1600’s, Queen Elizabeth was Shakespeare’s biggest supporter, King James now king (comes from direct line of Kings as Duncan) so Shakespeare now has to get support from King James
poetic license as long as author is faithful to main facts of story he can change other things to make it match his dramatic style, changes King Duncan into likable guy to get James on his side (also why Shakespeare includes witches)
sonnet Shakespeare is known for; has 14 lines; often they were commissioned (someone asked to have it written about someone) Shakespeare is equally known for playwright as he is poetry
allusion reference to something already supposed to know
Globe Theater has 8 sides, no artificial lighting so plays heard in afternoon, wealthy people sat on sides, no roof so depended on good weather, flag flying above meant play going to happen, groundlings or stinkers- commoners who watched on ground if they didn’t like play throw rotten food so Shakespeare used poetic license and added in vulgar and sexual scenes to please them
hazelnuts what people at at plays, their snack like our popcorn
performances at the Globe see Globe Theater
King James see Elizabethan period
History or fiction? historical elements in it but poetic license changed thing so it is a fiction with some historical facts

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