Macbeth and Drama

Macbeth was probably written between _____ and _____ 1599 and 1606
The earliest description of what was likely a performance of Macbeth recorded in 1611
first published in the _____; it is Shakespeare’s shortest tragedy. “Folio of 1623” (written for James I)
James I became king of England in _____ April of 1603
James I was also_____ of Scotland and had been king of Scotland since 1567 James VI
Most scholars believe that Shakespeare wrote Macbeth after ______________ partly in _______ to the king James I became his patron … tribute
In _____, James published a tract on witchcraft called ____________; this text is believed to have provided some of the background material for Shakespeare’s play. 1597… Daemonologie
The character of _______ is set up as a mythical/historical ancestor for James I; writing one’s patron into the lineage of some ___________ was common practice. Banquo … historical/mythical hero
One of Shakespeare’s major sources was a multivolume book about ______,_____,&______ _______ called __________ _________. Irish, English, and Scottish history… Holinshed’s Chronicles
Shakespeare made many changes to the version of the story of Macbeth which appeared in the chronicles, such as using ________ instead of ________ and making _______ a heroic character (and ancestor of James I) rather than a ______ with Macbeth. witches instead of fairies … Banquo a heroic character rather than a co-murder with Macbeth
There actually was a historical Macbeth:_______ ____ _______, king of the Scots from ______-______. MacBethad mac Findlaich … 1040-1057
Macbeth is believed to have been _______________ for the 17 years he was king, unlike his Shakespearean counterpart a wise and fair ruler
ambition The weird sisters’ prophecies lead Macbeth and Lady Macbeth to try to fulfill their ambitions, but the witches never make Macbeth or his wife do anything. Macbeth was good in the beginning.
fate from the moment the weird sisters tell Macbeth and Banquo their prophecies, both characters and the audience are forced to wonder about fate
violence battle, murder, suicide, every violent act leads to more violence
Natural and unnatural connection between the political and natural world. when murder happens, nature goes haywire
“Sonnet 2” A man’s worth as a man was also measured by his children at the time. They carry on the family name, the family line, and the family inheritance. Macbeth has no living children (failure)
Manhood/Masculinity distinguishing worth of a good man. Lady Macbeth challenges him when Macbeth decides not to kill Duncan
children “your children shall be kings” is the witches’ prophecy to Banquo; KIng Duncan names his son Malcolm as heir to the throne, which angers Macbeth. “Finger of birth-strangled babe”, “Upon my head they place a fruitless crown”
blood varying degrees of guilt in the character in the play (metaphor)
Sleep guilty conscious keeps you awake
The Janus Tableaux two-faced god- the 2 faces of a man: one looks at beginnings, one looks at endings. symbolizes the dual nature of man. Macbeth is brave but with seeds of greed and lust. with the influence of his wife, he lets evil take over good. results to bloodshed and murder & immense proportion.
The Machiavellian nature of Macbeth Macbeth= Brave yet ambition and connivinous, you have to inflict injury to keep power, but it never stops.
Evolution of the English Language: Old English-> Middle English-> Early Modern English-> Modern English
Syntax is arrangement of words in a sentence
Inversion (inverted syntax) unusual word order
Examples of Inversion from Shakespeare’s Plays: “Now is the time winter of our discontent” (Richard III)”What light through yonder window breaks” (Romeo and Juliet) “Now go we in content” (As you like it)
Contractions are used to create the correct # of syllables in a line
Contractions in Shakespeare include: ’tis= it is, o’er=over, e’en= even, gi=give
Shakespearean words anon= right now, art=are, doth=does, ere=before, hark=listen, marry= indeed, whence= from where, ye=y’all
Shakespeare is credited for introducing ________ words into the English vocabulary 3,000 (assassination, gloomy, bloody, control, hurry, generous, courtship)
Drama is literature written to be _______________ performed on a stage for an audience
The word “drama” comes from a _____ word meaning ________ Greek … action
Classical drama was _______ _______, included _______, _______, _______, and _______ _________. highly symbolic… music, dance, poetry, and audience participation.
_______ ______ featured a hero who must overcome evil; these plays were _________ in nature. morality plays … allegorical
Allegory is a ________ ______ where characters or events represent or symbolize ____________________________ literary device… other ideas or concepts
Dialogue in drama can be written in ______ or _______ prose (regular sentences) or verse (metered lines)
Shakespeare sometimes used prose to indicate __________ or _________ low social class or insanity
Shakespeare used verse to show ________ or ________ deep emotion or wisdom
Two main types of drama: _____ ______ and _______ ______ high tragedy and laughing comedy
High Tragedy examples are Macbeth, Oedipus Rex
Laughing comedy examples are Kiss Me Kate, The Taming of the Screw
Black Comedy example Dr. Strangelove
Satire example The Second Greatest Sex
Farce example The Importance of Being Earnest
Stage directions describe ______ and ___________and are written in _________with parenthesis. setting and actions and reactions of characters… italics
Aside a character’s quiet remark to the audience or another character that no one else on stage is supposed to hear.
3 common types of stages include proscenium, arena, and Thrust
proscenium can use runner curtains, enter and exit points, lights
arena characterization more than scenery (Antigone)
thrust both scenery and place for actors to enter and exit, but also actors can interact with the audience more
Shakespeare wrote 3 kinds of plays: comedy (Much About Nothing), tragedy (Hamlet, Macbeth), and histories (Richard III, Henry V)
tragic heroes are ________ who fall from high standing due to a _______________________ heroes… flaw in his character (hubris)j
tragic heroes are often influenced by ___________,________,and _________. mental instability, supernatural elements, and chance.
Tragic flaws take the form of an _________ and include such things as ________, _________, _______, ______, and _______. obsession … hubris, revenge, greed, lust/love, and ambition
Dramatic irony is when the reader or audience knows something that one or more of the characters don’t know
Verbal irony one thing is said but something else is meant
Situational irony when the expected results differ than from the actual results
Macbeth general in the Scottish Army, a fierce warrior
Lady Macbeth macbeth’s wife
Duncan King of Scotland
Malcolm and Donalbain sons of king duncan
Banquo General and co-leader with Macbeth of the Scottish Army
Fleance Banquo’s son
Macduff, Lennox, Ross, Menteith, Angus, & Caithness scottish noblemen
Siward Earl of Northumberland, General of the English forces
Seyton an officer attending Macbeth
Hecate a spirit; rules the witches
The weird sisters the 3 witches

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