Macbeth Act IV

Witch Two says “By the pricking of my thumb, Something wicked this way comes.” Who arrives? Macbeth Arrives
What is Macbeth’s attitude towards the witches this time? -Macbeth’s attitude towards them is demanding.-he conjures (orders) them to tell him more of his fate no matter how bad or good it is; he wants to know what is to come next
Do the witches answer Macbeth truthfully? -no-they give the answer they want (false security)
What are the witches doing when Macbeth arrives? -they are dancing around a caldron, throwing poisonous things in (spell against macbeth) -throw in: a poisonous toad, filet of swamp snake (parts of creatures that have magical properties), scale of a dragon, throat of a shark mummified witch, pig who had 9 babies and ate them all, the finger of a baby that had been left dead in a ditch by a prostitute women, and the worst a human liver-witches say jews are blasphemous bc don’t believe in jesus as son of God like Christians do so it’s okay to rip out their livers; say islamic people are blasphemous too so we can cut off their noses and throw them in *these are all examples of gruesome images of death and evil*
What 4 apparitions/things do the witches show Macbeth from the caldron? What does each show/say? 1. a helmeted head covered in armor- this says beware of Macduff (to macbeth) 2. Bloody Baby/child- This says no man born of a women will ever kill Macbeth (no man on earth can harm him) -Macbeth now says “i don’t have to kill macduff then… but ill kill him anyway just to be double sure” 3. Young child wearing a crown holding a tree in his hand- says until birnum wood moves five or six miles. He will never be defeated. “MacB cannot be beaten until the forests and roots of the trees surrounding his castle attack him” 4. Line of kings and the 8th one is King James of England (a descendent of Banquo) holding a mirror/glass- reflects that Banquo’s line of sons will be on the throne for several generations; for eternity-witches “ha ha” *vanish
What two characters are becoming their opposites? -Macbeth: started out very hesitant and didn’t wanna kill the king, but now he is more ruthless, bloody, bold, and absolute; wants to kill and have power -Lady Macbeth: started out greedy and malicious wanting to kill the king and wanting all of the power for her husband; do anything. but now she is less ruthless and feels more guilt and remorse
What does macbeth think of these new prophecies? he thinks they are good for him since all of the other ones before came true this means he’s gonna be unbeatable now (but really these are fake prophecies; Hecate messing with Macbeth to give him a false security)
Explain the paradox of the apparitions Paradox is a contradiction, he isn’t happy he is constantly worried. Also he had to kill his best friend and the king. He thinks one thing is gonna happen then the other thing happens. He believes he is invincible. (Macbeth)
Macbeth says (about the witches), “Infected be the air whereon they ride, And damned all those that trust them!” What is Macbeth, in effect, saying about himself? He is mad because he is trusting them.
Where is Macduff? Why isn’t he with his family? Macduff is in England. He is meeting with Malcolm and the king of England. He is trying to get them to build an army, then return to Scotland to reclaim the throne from Macbeth
What attitudes emerge from Lady Macduff’s characterization? She is aggravated Macduff left them and she thinks he does not love them. He has left them unprotected. She doesn’t know if he is a traitor or trying to save Scotland.
Who is the messenger? Hecate
Why does Macbeth go to Fife? to kill Macduff’s wife and babies
Macduff’s Wife says that Macduff “wants the natural touch” meaning… he lacks the natural instinct to protect his family
Why does Macbeth have Macduff’s family and servants killed? The first sign that he will do anything to anyone who gets in his way.-also, bc he has learned that macduff fled to england to battle against him
What dramatic elements emerge at the beginning of Scene 3 between Macduff and Malcolm? Macduff explains that he has come for help to Scotland. Malcolm believes that Macduff is here on half of Macbeth. Macduff would have never left his family in such danger if he didn’t know Macbeth wouldn’t harm them, and this is why Malcolm thinks he is working with Macbeth and does not trust him.
In what he claims is the only lie he ever told, what does Malcolm tell Macduff about if he were to become king…. he says that if we kill macbeth he will be the next king in line, and claims Scotland will be worse under the next king (himself) because if Malcolm becomes king he says he will want all of the ladies and all of the money -Macduff says okay well then you should be dead now if thats how you’re gonna rule (passes test)
Why does Malcolm test Macduff? -to test his loyalty to Scotland -Malcolm shows he is wise. Father taught him well.
What news does Ross bring to Macduff? His family has been killed.
The doctor comes in and says that there are a lot of sick people in England but the King is healing them how? -by touching them -says that the King of England has the touch of God to heal people (this is another one of Shakespeare’s attempts to suck up to James to get him to be his patron($) bc he was king at this time)
What does Malcolm tell Macduff to do with his grief? Take it and use it as energy for revenge and destroy Macbeth
What does Malcolm resolve by the end of Act 4? Malcolm is returning to Scotland with an army provided by King James.

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