Macbeth act 4

Scene 1 In a dark cavern, a bubbling cauldron hisses and spits, and the three witches suddenly appear onstage. They circle the cauldron, chanting spells and adding bizarre ingredients to their stew—”eye of newt and toe of frog, / Wool of bat and tongue of dog” (4.1.14-15).
One of the witches says- One of the witches then chants: “By the pricking of my thumbs, / Something wicked this way comes” (4.1.61-62). In fulfillment of the witch’s prediction, Macbeth enters.
What happens when Macbeth asks the witches what will happen to him? they summon horrible apparitions
What are the apparitions? 1. a floating head warns him to beware Macduff. 2. Then a bloody child appears and tells him that “none of woman born / shall harm Macbeth” 3. Next, a crowned child holding a tree tells him that he is safe until Birnam Wood moves to Dunsinane Hill4. Finally, a procession of eight crowned kings walks by, the last carrying a mirror. Banquo’s ghost walks at the end of the line.
Lennox enters and tells Macbeth what? that Macduff has fled to England. Macbeth resolves to send murderers to capture Macduff’s castle and to kill Macduff’s wife and children.
At Macduff’s castle why Lady Macduff accosts Ross? because her husband has left and is demanding to know why her husband has fled to
Lady Macduff tells her son that his father is dead does the son believe her? the little boy perceptively argues that he is not
a messenger hurries in why? warning Lady Macduff that she is in danger and urging her to flee
When she doesn’t flee what happened? A group of murderers then enters. When one of them denounces Macduff, Macduff’s son calls the murderer a liar, and the murderer stabs him. Lady Macduff turns and runs, and the pack of killers chases after her.
Why doesn’t Malcolm trust Macduff? he does not trust him since he has left his family in Scotland and may be secretly working for Macbeth
How does Malcolm determine if Macduff is trustworthy? Malcolm rambles on about his own vices. He admits that he wonders whether he is fit to be king, since he claims to be lustful, greedy, and violent.
How does Macduff react to Malcolm’s vices? Macduff politely disagrees with his future king, but eventually Macduff cannot keep himself from crying out, “O Scotland, Scotland!” (4.3.101). Macduff’s loyalty to Scotland leads him to agree that Malcolm is not fit to govern Scotland and perhaps not even to live.
Ross comes to england to retrive malcolm and macduff Ross confesses to Macduff that Macbeth has murdered his wife and children. Macduff is crushed with grief. Malcolm urges him to turn his grief to anger, and Macduff assures him that he will inflict revenge upon Macbeth.

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