Macbeth

What play is bad luck and why? -Macbeth = said to be cursed-can’t say the name in the theater-is referred to as “the Scottish Play”-accidents and injuries occur when performed-since the 1st performance-boy playing Macbeth died and Shakespeare had to play role in 1606
Where were Shakespeare’s plays performed? -the Globe Theater = best known theater in London-3 story wooden structure that holds 3000 people-plays performed on a platform stage-wealthier patrons sat in covered galleries-open air theater = depended on natural light for illumination-played on Sundays
Who were the groundlings? -poorer patrons who stood around the stage to watch-they had food and drinks while watching-if they disapproved of actors, they would “boo” them and threw food-place for pickpockets
How were the actors? -they were in complete control of production = no producer or director-minimal scenery and props-costumes were extravagant, wore makeup-rehearsal time was minimal = learned in a week
Where were the theaters and how were the atmospheres? -rowdy crowds-located near taverns gave theaters and actors immoral reputation = built outside of city because playhouses were banned-theaters viewed as disreputable-women couldn’t perform = boys played all parts
What happened to the Globe? 1613 – its thatched roof caught on fire during “Henry VIII” performance and the theater was destroyed-it was rebuilt at same location w/ a tiled gallery roof30 yrs later – Cromwell and Parliament shut down theater = no entertainment1990s – theater rebuilt the same as old Globe1997 – official reopening = became popular London tourist attraction
Who owned the plays? -the acting company; not the playwright-Shakespeare didn’t own or have any right to publish his own plays
How were Renaissance Dramas different from Middle Ages plays? Middle Age = religiousRenaissance = become secular and go back to Greek plays-examine humanism and self
What were the two categories of Shakespeare? comedy = dramatic work w/ a happy endingtragedy = main character or tragic hero came to an unhappy ending
What were the Greek origins of tragedy and comedies? -they originated in Ancient Greece in outdoor festivalstragedy = aroused pity and fear in audience = produced a catharsis-hero’s tragic flaw shows hubris-also had a chorus explaining what was happening
What was the intention of a tragedy? -to exemplify idea that human beings are doomed to suffer, fail, or die because of their flaws, destiny, or fate
What is the plot of a tragedy? -it is a conflict that contributes to hero’s downfall-built upon a series of events that lead to the catastrophe (tragic resolution)-final stage of plot involves death of the hero-resolved when hero meets doom w/ courage and dignity
What is the theme of a tragedy? -focuses on an aspect of fate, ambition, loss, defeat, loyalty, death, impulse, or desire-may contain several themes-used comic relief to ease intensity
What are Shakespeare’s conventions of drama? -play is divided into acts then scenes-dialogue is labeled and stage directions in italics-verse drama-blank verse-soliloquy-aside-dramatic irony-foreshadowing
What is verse drama? -a play that dialogue consists almost entirely of poetry w/ meter and rhyme-Macbeth is a verse drama-many English verse dramas are written in blank verse
What is blank verse? -unrhymed iambic pentameter
What is a soliloquy? -a speech that a character makes while alone on stage;-it reveals character’s innermost thoughts and feelings as if thinking aloud-gives info that the character wouldn’t reveal to others in the play-long speech
What is an aside? -a remark that is directed to the audience or another character, but that others on stage cannot hear
What is dialogue? -a conversation between 2 or more characters in either fiction or nonfiction-in dramas, almost all dialogue
What is prose? -all forms of written or spoken expression that are not in verse
What is dramatic irony? -what appears true to one or more characters in a play is seen to be false by the audience
What is comic relief? -a light, mildly humorous scene following a serious one
What is a catastrophe? -a tragic resolution-usually involves death
What is an antagonist / nemesis? -a person or force against the hero
What is hamartia? -a fatal flaw leading to the downfall of a tragic hero
What is catharsis? -the process of releasing strong or repressed emotions-cleansing
What is hubris? -excessive pride that leads the tragic hero to challenge the gods
What is foreshadowing? -a writer’s use of hints or clues to suggest what events will occur later in a work
What are some characteristics of Shakespearean Language? -thou, thee, thy, thine, thyself = you-“art” for are and “cometh” for comes-unusual word order = often verbs before subjects-unusual vocab = words no longer in use, words w/ different meanings today, and he created new words (gloomy and excellent)
What is a tragedy? -a play in which the main character, or tragic hero, suffers a downfall as a result of a fatal flaw, errors in judgement, or fate (outside forces)
What are characteristics of a tragic hero? -high rank or social status-has extraordinary abilities and integrity = doesn’t have to be good but usually are-contributes to his downfall as well as others by his own actions-has a tragic flaw (hamartia) that contributes to downfall-breaks a human, natural, or divine law which threatens order of society, producing death, destruction, and chaos-realizes his responsibility; makes last attempt to restore what he’s lost; too late to prevent his own death
What is a tragic flaw? -fatal flaw; character weakness; error in judgement; the quality which leads to his/her downfall (can be an act or failure to act)
What is the conflict in a tragedy? external conflict = person, groups, or forces challenging the tragic herointernal conflict = the tragic hero struggles w/ conflict of forces in his/her soul/mind
What is the abnormal in a tragedy? -Shakespeare occasionally represents abnormal conditions of the mind (ex. madness, somnambulism, and hallucinations)
What is the supernatural in a tragedy? -Shakespeare knew the audience’s affinity for ghosts, premonitions, and prophecies
What is the fate/fortune/chance? -Shakespeare often allows fate or chance to complicate the plot, but hero ultimately make own choices
What is the cycle of tragedy? restoration of order → good (order) →evil (sin is committed) →chaos → death (retribution) →repeat
Why did Shakespeare make his heroines interesting, witty, and intelligent? -all girl roles were played by boys-little actual sex-uses bawdy puns and sexual allusions instead
When and where was Shakespeare born? What was his early life and education like? -born in Stratford-upon-Avon (small town central England) on April 23rd 1564 and baptized on the 26th-family was initially prosperous, but had financial difficulties in 1570s-father = successful business manmom = inherited farmland from father-probably attended Stratford’s excellent grammar school = studied Latin, Greek, logic, rhetoric, and math-read classical authors
Who did Shakespeare marry? -at 18, he married Anne Hathaway (26 yrs) in 1582-had daughter, and a set of twins-son Hamnet died at 11
When and where did Shakespeare move? -he moved to London in 1590 to pursue a career in the theater
When was the first documented evidence of Shakespeare as a playwright noted? 1592
What company did Shakespeare become apart of? -Lord Chamberlain’s Men
Because of his financial success, he became a partner of ___________________ and purchased an estate in ___________________ called _________________ -Globe-Stratford-New Place
What was Shakespeare’s acting company changed to? -the King’s Men-because James I ascended the throne in 1603 and was his patron
Where did Shakespeare retire and when did he die? -Stratford in 1610-he dies on April 23rd 1616
What is a motif? -a repeated or recurring pattern in a literary work
What is the background of Macbeth (1606)? setting = Scotland 11th century (“The Scottish Play”)-James I (from Scotland) patron of the King’s Men-interested in witchcraft = wrote Demonologie in 1597-Shakespeare looks to Holinshed’s “Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland” = for Research
What is regicide considered? -worst act of pride
What is pathetic fallacy? -literary device that attributes human emotion and action to all aspects of nature; nature mirrors human action
What is the Elizabethan View of order in Macbeth? God → Angels → Duncan → Malcolm → Other nobles (Macbeth, Macduff, Banquo) → Knights → Gentlemen → Peasants → Animals →Plants → Inorganic Matter → Chaos
What is Elizabethan World View? -ordered universe based on hierarchy-one must know his/her place in hierarchy-don’t know chaos ensuesex. Macbeth tries to take kingship and disrupts hierarchy
What is contrasting juxtaposition? -one element in opposition/contrast to another-emphasizes idea, elicits emotion, and distinguishes characters
What is the cause of Macbeth’s downfall? -fate-the witches knew what was going to happen and so did the apparitions-the apparitions gave him warnings because they knew her fate-it was up to Macbeth on how to get there
Motif – Hallucinations 1. Macbeth = floating dagger that becomes bloody2. Macbeth = ghost of Banquo sits at table3. Lady Macbeth = sleep walks and believes hands are stained w/ blood / hands never clean-Macbeths read them as supernatural signs of guilt-Macbeth = the hallucinations represent the fear of the unkown-It undercuts the reality of the supernatural focusing on the Macbeth’s internal guilt and struggle
How does Macbeth reflect a tragic hero? -high rank = Thane of Glamis, Cawdor, and then king-extraordinary ability = “But all’s took weak for Brave Macbeth”-contributes to down fall = murders of Duncan, Banquo, and Macduff’s family-flaw = ambition = for kingship through murders-breaks human law = regicide w/ Duncan
How does Macbeth develop as a character? -starts out guilty = thinking of killing Duncan “We’d jump the life to come”-no guilt when ordering to kill Macduff’s family = “I’ll raid Macduff’s castle, seize the town of Fife, and kill his wife, his children””as soon as I decide to do something I’m going to act immediately”
How does Lady Macbeth develop over the course of the play? Guiltless = “My hands are of your color, but I shameTo wear a heart so white” – killing DuncanGuilty = “Here’s the smell of the blood still” / “What, will these hands ne’er be clean?” while sleepwalking shows the guilt
Name two conflicts that are presented in the play Macbeth vs. Self = “We’d jump the life to come” = his guilt vs. ambition when debating Duncan’s murder-ambition wins = “I will not yield to kiss the ground”-Excessive ambition is unnatural and dangerousMacbeth vs. Macduff = “Wake Northumberland and warlike Siward that, by the help of these” = Macduff doesn’t like him-Macduff wins-there’s a difference between tyranny and kingship
What is the tone of Macbeth? -sinister and somber
What are two subjects and a theme addressed in the play? -ambition and guilt-In Macbeth by William Shakespeare, it is shown that excessive ambition can be dangerous.
Three lines that might be significant. 1. “Will all great Neptune’s ocean wash this blood clean from my hand? No, this is my hand will rather the multitudinous seas incarnadine, making the green one red” – Macbeth = repeated when Lady is sleep walking2. “‘Gainst nature still! Thriftless ambition, that will raven up thine own lives’ means” -Ross = talking about Malcolm and Donalbain but true because Macbeth killed Duncan because of ambition3. “All hail, Macbeth! Hail to thee, Thane of Glanis…Thane of Cawdor… that shalt be king herafter” -witches = they tell of the prophecies
Most memorable scene -Act 4 Scene 1-it describes the conditions where Macbeth will succeed or be vanquished-all of the prophecies came true1. “Beware Macduff”2. “for none of woman born shall harm Macbeth”3. “Macbeth shall never vanquished be until Great Birnan Wood to high Dunsinane Hill”
What has Macbeth learned and what does the audience learn? -excessive ambition can destroy values, individuals, and nations-Macbeth lost himself after murdering so much, and soon his ambition overcomes his guilt-He loses who he used to be
What three characters set the tone for the play and what is the tone?What lines create a sense of ambiguity? -Three Witches / “Weird Sister”-eerie, dark-“Fair is foul, and foul is fair; Hover through the fog and filthy air”
What forces are attacking the kingdom of Scotland? Who turned against King Duncan?Who were heroes in the battle?What was Macbeth like?”what he hath lost, noble Macbeth hath won”? -the Norwegians-Thane of Cawdor and Thane of Macdonwald-Macbeth and Banquo-loyal, brave-Thane of Cawdor lost his nobility for his betrayal and Macbeth now owns it = for being loyal
What are the three witches predictions?What were their reactions to the predictions?What does Macbeth have to do to be king? -Thane of Cawdor and Macbeth will be king-Banquo won’t be king but his descendants will-Macbeth = happy that because prophecy has already come true and wants more answers-Banquo = doesn’t believe them; thinks they’re on drugs-Macbeth will have to kill Duncan to be king
Who does Duncan name as heir?What’s his new title?How does Macbeth react? -Malcolm, his oldest son-Prince of Cumberland-he’s happy but Malcolm now stands in the way
What does Lady fear about her husband?What is their relationship like? -she fears that he won’t have the heart to kill Duncan = lacks ruthlessness-relationship is unconventional-Lady is demanding and in charge = orders him around
What is ironic about 1.6 with Lady and Duncan? -Dramatic = we know that Lady wants to kill Duncan and finds the place that he’s going to die beautiful-she treats him w/ respect
What are the reasons Macbeth shouldn’t kill Duncan?How does Lady convince him to kill Duncan? -he is a loyal kingsman and subject-he is Duncan’s host-he admires the king because he’s virtuous-he could be assassinated-Lady is persistent and stubborn-she calls him a coward and questions his manhood
What does Macbeth want to talk to Banquo about? -the witches and their prophecies
Why doesn’t Lady kill Duncan herself?Why can’t Macbeth say AMEN?”Macbeth does murder sleep” meaning?How was the murder executed and what was demeanor?What sound alarms the Macbeths? -Duncan looks like her father sleeping and can’t do it = shows some humanity-he feels guilty = he’s damaged, corrupted, and committed a moral sin-murders the king in his sleep-it’s a messy murder and not orderly / Lady is exasperated-knocking
Who is the play’s only comical figure?Why does Macduff come?What does Lennox mean “the night has been unruly”?Is Macbeth’s feelings real?How does Macduff describe the murder?Who kills the chamberlains and why?What do Malcolm and Donalbain do? -the Porter = gates of hell-He comes to wake the king because Duncan asked him-knight has been chaotic w/ murder and storms = pathetic fallacy-I think it’s true feelings-He describes Duncan’s body as God’s temple that now has no life in it-Macbeth kills them = says it’s because of his rage and fury that he couldn’t restrain-they decide it’s not safe for them / Malcolm = England Donalbain = Ireland
What do Ross and the Old Man talk about w/ the assassination?What do people assume w/ Malcolm and Donalbain?Who is king, where will he be crowned and where will Duncan be buried? -unnatural events = dark when it’s supposed to be day / owl kills falcon / Duncan’s horses act wildly and eat each other = pathetic fallacy-everyone thinks they bribed the chamberlains to kill their father and they ran away = suspicious-Macbeth is crowned at Scone / Duncan is buried on Colmekill Island
Who is the honored guest at who’s dinner?Who does Macbeth imply killed Duncan?Why does Macbeth hire two men?Why do the men agree to do it? -Banquo is honored at Macbeth’s dinner-Malcolm and Donalbain-to kill Banquo and Fleance-they are angry at Banquo and want revenge / Macbeth also questions their manhood
What role does Lady play in these murders?What happens w/ Banquo and Fleance? -Macbeth doesn’t tell her what the plans are, but to be jovial and nice to Banquo at the feast-they are riding at night and three murderers kill Banquo while Fleance escapes
Who is the unexpected guest at Macbeth’s banquet?How does Macbeth react at this banquet?How does Lady explain Macbeth’s behavior?”I am in blood, stepped so far that, should I wade no more, Returning were as tedious as to go o’er” meaning?Who will Macbeth consult on his future? -the ghost of Banquo-he acts really crazy and talks to the ghost and tells him that the ghost can’t prove he killed him-says that he’s done this before and to not question it = ignore him or else it will make it worse-He has done so many bad things, murders, that it’s impossible to stop and be good again-the Weird Sisters
What do we learn about the characters from Lennox?What is life like under Macbeth’s rule? -Malcolm is England w/ King England = likes it there and is respected-Macduff went to England to ask King Edward for help / He wants to make an alliance w/ people of Northumberland and their Lord Siward / He wants to overthrow Macbeth-he is a tyrant / people want food on table again, peace, free of murders, pay proper homage to king, and receive honors freely
What are the witches making at beginning of Act 4 and what ingredients?What are the predictions for Macbeth from apparitions?What does Macbeth also want to know?What does he see as an answer?Who does Macbeth order killed and what does he decide from now on? -making a spell in a cauldron = fillet of a swampy snake, eye of newt, tongue of dog1. Armed head = fear Macduff!2. A bloody child = none of woman born shall harm Macbeth3. A crowned child holding a tree = Macbeth won’t be vanquished until Birnam Wood moves to Dunsinane Hill-wants to know if Banquo’s descendants will be king-he sees 8 kings walking w/ Banquo at the end = they all look related to him-he orders everyone in Macduff’s castle killed, including family-he decides to do stuff before he can stop to think of it
Why is Lady Macduff angry w/ her husband? -she’s mad he left = makes him look like a traitor-feels betrayed = he abandoned his wife and children-“All is fear, and nothing in love”
How is Scotland?Why does Malcolm tell Macduff he’s more evil than Macbeth?What bad news does Ross tells Macduff?What do Malcolm and Macduff decide to do? -not good = no one smiles, no one notices groans or shrieks and violence is common-he is lustful (women), greedy (money, and violent-Ross tells Macduff that Macbeth killed his whole family and servants-decide to take revenge and kill Macbeth face to face
What is wrong w/ Lady Macbeth?What scene do we recall?What does the Doctor recommend for Lady? -she is sleepwalking and talking of her guilt in her sleep-Act 2 scene 2 “A little water clears us of this deed”-recommends a priest for her to clear her conscience
Who is leading the English forces to battle? -Malcolm
Why is Macbeth not worried about the attack?How many soldiers are coming?Who is Seyton?What does Macbeth ask the Doctor? 1. No one who is woman-born can kill him2. will rule until Birnam Wood moves to Dunsinane Hill-10,000 soldiers-an officer attending to Macbeth-asks doctor to cure his wife of a diseased mind
What does Malcolm order his soldiers to do? -to hold branches in front of them so that their army looks smaller
What has Macbeth “almost forgotten”?What news does Seyton bring Macbeth?What metaphors does Macbeth use to describe life?What news does the messenger bring to Macbeth? -almost forgot the taste of fears = horror is so familiar to him that it doesn’t startle-Seyton tells him that Lady is dead-life is a brief candle that blows out / it’s a story told by idiots / life is a forgotten actor-messenger says the Birnam Wood is moving towards Dunsinane Hill = Macbeth shows denial and confidence is broken = relied on the fact that this won’t happen
Who does Macbeth kill?Siward says Macbeth’s castle is “gently rend’red”? -Young Siward-he means that Macbeth’s castle has surrendured w/out a fight = soldiers don’t care
What does Siward want to know about his son’s death?What does Macduff reveal about his birth?Who kills Macbeth?Who is the new king of Scotland? -he asks where he was hurt = in the front / wants to know if he died an honorable death = yes-technically isn’t woman born = ripped prematurely from his mother’s womb-Macduff carries in Macbeth’s head-Malcolm is the new king

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