Macbeth

Quotes supporting Macbeth’s ambition ‘Only vaulting ambition’ (A1,S7)
Quotes supporting Macbeth’s bravery, honor + loyalty ‘Valiant cousin’ (A1,S2)’Brave Macbeth-well he deserves that name’ (A1,S2)
Quotes supporting Macbeth’s violence ‘Let not light see my black and deep desires'(A1,S4)’Look like the innocent flower, but be the serpent under it’ (A1,S5) ‘Is this a dagger which I see before me…let me clutch thee’ (A2,S1)’Macbeth does murder sleep’ (A2, S2)
Quotes supporting Macbeth’s conscience struggle + lack of confidence ‘We will proceed no further in this business’ (A1,S7) ‘If we should fail’ (A1,S7) ‘I dare do all that may become a man’ (A1,S7) ‘Will all great Neptune’s ocean wash this bloodClean from my hand?’ (A2,S2) [seeing ghost] ‘Avaunt, + quit my sight’ (A3,S3)
Quotes supporting Macbeth’s easy influence ‘Too full o’ th’ milk of human kindness’ (A1,S5)’But screw your courage to the sticking-place, + we’ll not fail’ (A1,S7) ‘And live a coward in thine own esteem’ (A1,S7)
Quotes supporting Lady Macbeth’s cruelty + ruthlessness ‘Be like the snake that hides underneath the flower’ (A1,S5)’Unsex me here’ (A1,S5)
Quotes supporting Lady Macbeth’s ambition ‘Unsex me here’ (A1,S5) ‘But screw your courage to the sticking-place, + we’ll not fail’ (A1,S7) ‘Dashed the brains out, had I so sworn as youhave done to this’ (A1,S7) ‘These deeds must not be thought… it will make us mad’ (A2,S2)
Quotes supporting Lady Macbeth’s madness + guilt ‘Out, damned spot!’ (A5,S1)’Yet who would have thought the old manto have had so much blood in him’ (A5,S1)’What, will these hands ne’er be clean?’ (A5,S1)’Here’s the smell of the blood still’ (A5,S1)’ Wash your hands’ (A5,S1)’I tell you yet again, Banquo’s buried; cannot come out on’s grave’ (A5,S1)
Quote supporting Duncan’s kindness ‘Let me enfold thee, and hold thee to my heart’ (A1,S4)’His virtues will plead like angels’ (A1,S7)
Quote supporting Duncan being a good king ‘No more the Thane of Cawdor will deceive’ (A1,S2)’So clear in his great office’ (A1,S7) ‘A most sainted king’ (A4,S3)
Quote supporting Duncan’s trusting ‘With his former title greet Macbeth’ (A1,S2)’There’s no art, to fin the mind’s construction in the face’ (A1,S4) [About original Thane of Cawdor] ‘A gentleman on whom i built, an absolute trust’ (A1,S4)
Malcolm quotes signifying character ‘Dispute it like a man’ (A3,S3) ‘This tyrant, whose sole name blisters our tongues, was once thought honest’ (A4,S3)’I am young’ (A4,S3)’I think our country sinks beneath the yoke; It weeps, it bleeds; and each new day a gash 1890Is added to her wounds’ (A4,S3) ‘I speak not as in absolute fear of you’ (A4,S3) ‘When I shall tread upon the tyrant’s head’ (A4,S3) ‘Give obedience where it is truly owed’ (A5,S2) ‘Thanks to all at once and to each one, Whom we invite to see us crown’d at Scone’ (A5,S8)
Donalbain quotes signifying character ‘What is amiss?’ (A2,S3) ‘What should be spoken here, where our fate, Hid in an auger-hole, may rush, and seize us? Let ‘s away; Our tears are not yet brew’d’ (A2,S3) ‘To Ireland, I; our separated fortune Shall keep us both the safer: where we are, There’s daggers in men’s smiles: the near in blood, The nearer bloody.’ (A2,S3)
Banquo quotes signifying character ‘To me you speak not’ (A1,S3) ‘Father of many kings’ (A1,S3)’If you can look into the seeds of time, And say which grain will grow and which will not, Speak, then, to me, who neither beg nor fear Your favors nor your hate’ (A1,S3) ‘Thou hast it now—king, Cawdor, Glamis, all, As the weird women promised, and I fear Thou played’st most foully for’t’ (A1,S3) ‘Worthy Macbeth, we stay upon your leisure’ (A1,S3) ‘The instruments of darkness tell us truths, win us with honest trifles’ (A1,S3[To fleance] ‘Hold, take my sword. There’s husbandry in heaven; their candles are all out’ (A2,S1)’In the great hand of God I stand; and thence Against the divulged pretense I fightOf treasonous malice’ (A2,S3)’Let your highness command upon me; to the which my duties’ (A3,S1)’O, treachery! Fly, good Fleance, fly, fly, fly! Thou mayst revenge. O slave!’ (A3,S3)
Macduff quotes signifying character ‘Is thy master stirring?’ (A2,S3) [Duncan’s body discovered] ‘O horror, horror, horror! Tongue nor heart cannot conceive nor name thee!’ (A2,S3)’As from your graves rise up, and walk like sprites…ring the bell’ (A2,S3)’ Those that Macbeth hath slain’ (A2,S4) ‘This noble passion, child of integrity’ (A4,S3)’I must also feel it as a man’ (A4,S3)’Hold fast the mortal sword…new widows howl, new orphans cry, new sorrows’ (45,S3) ‘I have lost my hopes’ (A4,S3)’Bleed, bleed, poor country! Great tyranny’ (A4,S3)’I have no words, my voice is in my sword’ (A5,S8)’Hail, King of Scotland!’ (A5,S8)
Witches quotes signifying character ‘Fair is foul, and foul is fair; hover through the fog and filthy air’ (A1,S1) ‘All hail, Macbeth, thou shalt be king hereafter!’ (A1,S3) ‘Thou shalt get kings, though thou be none.So all hail, Macbeth and Banquo!’ (A1,S3) ‘None of woman born shall harm Macbeth’ (A4,S1)
What are the main themes in Macbeth? AmbitionLoyalty + Betrayal Kingship Good + EvilThe Supernatural Reality + Appearances Fate + Free Will
Ambition + the play Motivates Macbeth’s actions which changes him Makes Macbeth ruthless + selfish As Macbeth + Lady Macbeth are destroyed by their ambition, it warns people against unbalanced ambition Is Macbeth’s ‘fatal flaw’Not all characters are corrupted by their ambition i.e. Malcolm + Macduff are ambitious for their country Banquo is ambitious for fleance after the prophecy, but doesn’t react the same was as Macbeth
Loyalty + betrayal + the play Contrast between characters i.e. Macbeth’s loyalty to Duncan + Macduff’s loyalty to Scotland Macduff is loyal to Scotland as he chooses to go to England to ask Malcolm to defend his country instead of protecting his country Macbeth is loyal to Duncan in Act 1 by fighting for him ‘his kinsman + his subject’, pretense to be loyal during murder plot ‘your servant ever’Banquo is loyal to his honor, he went let ambition + the prophecies affect himBetrayal in the play usually occurs due to selfish desires Betrayal is punished i.e. Thane of Cawdor executed,loyalty rewarded i.e. Macbeth given titleMacbeth betrays his own sense of right + wrong Betrayal is linked to power i.e. titles
Kingship + the play Duncan makes Macbeth next in line after Malcolm + Donalbain, Macbeth wins throne by killing Duncan + framing Malcolm + Donalbain Duncan is an ideal king ‘gracious’ + inspires loyalty in subjects, who see him as a ‘most sainted king’ + therefor rightful ruler of Scotland Macbeth is a ‘tyrant’ because of his selfish rule + violence, rarely referred to as ‘King’ which shows other characters don’t accept him as the true king, ‘devilish’ Malcolm describes Macbeth’s reign as ‘false’ + ‘deceitful’ + ‘bloody’, making him a bad king Malcolm describes Duncan as a good king as Duncan shows ‘temperance’ + ‘lowliness’ + ‘justice’ + ‘bounty’, ‘holy’ (religious connotations making him true king) King of England, Edward, has a ‘healing benediction’ (religious connotations), ‘holy prayers’, ‘blessings’ + ‘speak him full of grace’
Good + evil + the play Shakespeare uses dark imagery to represent evil + light imagery to represent good Macbeth is ‘noble’ at the beginning so is made Thane of CawdorProphecy tempts him + his ambition + evil desires causes evil, shows even good people can be lead astray by power + ambition Macbeth becomes increasingly evil as play develops due to crimes + murders The struggle for the crown of Scotland becomes the battle between good + evil Evil is linked to gender i.e. masculinity, Lady Macbeth ‘unsex’ ‘direst cruelty’ as she thinks her femininity holds her back from taking action, also the witches are women so rely on manipulation Lady Macbeth relies on manipulation of Macbeth rather than action, using his emotions to blackmail him into committing evil Battles symbolism conflict good + evilConflict between good + evil shown through religious imagery Macbeth is ‘cursed’ ‘more hateful than the devil’, whereas Young Siward is ‘Gods soldier’ as he died fighting the ‘tyrant’ Macbeth
The supernatural + the play Witches are an evil supernatural force ‘strange intelligence’ Ability to predict the future gives them power over humansAt the time witches were real so the weird sisters would seem believable + frightening to an audience in the 1600’s Supernatural force influenced Macbeth’s evil actions Witches are motivated by ‘destruction’ rather than goodness i.e. ‘untie the winds’ + ‘castles topple’, this represents the struggle between the natural + unnatural order The witches have no remorse + are inhuman Visions are supernatural signs of guilt e.g. Macbeth’s guilt is shown through ‘is this a dagger I see before me’ + Banquo’s ghost ‘strange infirmity’, Lady Macbeth’s guilt is shown through her madness that her hands ‘will ne’er be clean’ of Duncan’s blood, this guilt killed her Supernatural causes fear i.e. Macbeth is ‘blanched with fear’ by Banquo’s ghost, this links to signs of madness later in the play Lady Macbeth’s vision is caused by her guilty conscience ‘O, o, o!’ shows her disturbance
Reality + appearance + the play Macbeth hides thoughts + actions throughout the play e.g. ‘your loyal servant always’ Lady Macbeth encourages Macbeth to appear good ‘look like th’ innocent flower, But be the serpent under’t (religious connotations) Macbeth hides murderous acts ‘false face must hide what the false heart doth know’ When Macbeth sees Banquo’s ghost, his face is ‘the very painting’ of his fear + betrays his feelings Lady Macbeth hides her evil behaviour e.g. pretends to faint when Duncan’s death is discovered, until later on in the play, where guilt becomes to great to hide it so she sleepwalks People are deceptive, but the play shows their true natural is always revealed Witches ‘fair is foul, and foul is fair’ shows appearance of good when they’re actually evil Witches give Macbeth false confidence ‘none of women born can harm Macbeth’Paradoxes cause uncertainty ‘Nothing is, but what is not’ Characters trust appearances too much e.g. Duncan trusts Macbeth + dies for it ‘There’s no art, to find the mind’s construction in the face Macbeth’s trusts the witches appearance, this causes his downfall Malcolm is immediately skeptical of Duncan’s death ‘to show an unfelt sorrow is an office, which the false man does easy’, this leads him to flee + saves his life
Fate + free will + the play The play raises questions, whether it was Macbeth’s fate which lead him to the throne, or his free will causing actions that enabled itMacbeth says ‘chance may crown me, without my stir’ showing he believes its his fate The witches could be showing Macbeth his fate or their prediction may inspire Macbeth to change his fate Lady Macbeth thinks Macbeth is fated to be King ‘fate + metaphysical aid doth, to have thee crowned withal At the end of the play Macbeth believes people cant change their fate ‘a poor player, that struts and frets his hour upon the stage’ Macbeth does have free will ‘we will proceed no further’, this suggests he’s in control Macbeth decides against Banquo’s warning ‘instruments of darkness’ Some prophecies are self fulfilling, Macbeth only acts because he heard the prophecies
How does Shakespeare’s structure of Macbeth effect the play? Witches at beginning emphasizes supernatural forcesFirst scene of each act sets mood for the rest of the act e.g. Act 2, Scene 1 Macbeth murders Duncan Varying length of scene changes focal point of scene e.g. short scenes speed up action + increase excitement, long scenes explore character’s emotions + reveal true charactersForeshadowing events e.g. ‘fair is foul’, ‘thou shalt be king hereafter’Suspense caused by events + unknown consequences e.g. Macbeth’s battles with conscience over killing Duncan, Banquo suspecting Macbeth killing Duncan, Macduff vowing to take revenge on Macbeth after death of his family + the scenes altering between Scotland + England Scene arrangement: minor scenes build tension + suspense, 1st part of play is Macbeth’s rise to power, 2nd part of play is Macbeth’s downfall
How does Shakespeare’s mood + atmosphere in Macbeth effect the play? Setting – sets atmosphere for the rest of the scene e.g. witches appear with ‘thunder and lightening’ Humor – use is ironic + emphasises situation + atmosphere e.g. Porter refers to Macbeths castle as ‘hell-gate’, ‘devil porter’ Language – sets scene + creates atmosphere e.g. dramatic irony, describing words, metaphors, violent language, vivid imagery, short lines, rhetorical questions etcUse of supernatural – creates tension + changes mood Different scenes – evoke different responses e.g. ‘strange screams of death’, ‘drum’
How does poetry in Macbeth effect the play? Blank verse: lines usually don’t rhyme, each line has 10-11 syllables + each line has 5 beats Regular rhyme stresses important parts Witches speak differently: rhyming couplets, 7-8 syllables + 4 beats, this emphasis’s their difference from other characters, shows supernatural Long words + sentences slow pace for emphasis Short words + sentences speeds pace for effect on emotions Rhythms show different emotions e.g. punctuation + choice of words changes atmosphere accordingly Word order emphasises different words Soliloquies show the characters’ thoughts + feelings
How does puns + wordplay effect the play? Puns cause questions about character motives Wordplay creates dramatic irony, when the audience knows something the characters on stage don’tOxymoron’s, where two words contradict each other, juxtapose each other + heighten tension e.g. ‘lies like truth’ (Macbeth about prophecy) ‘When the battles lost and won’
How does imagery + symbolism effect the play? Similes MetaphorsPersonification Light symbolises good e.g. ‘signs of nobleness, like stars, shall shine’Dark symbolises evil e.g. ‘Instruments of darkness’, ‘stars, hide your fires, let not light see my black and deep desires’, ‘nor heaven peep through the blanket of dark’ Nature represents the correct order of the world e.g. ‘a falcon…was by a mousing owl hawked at and killed’, shows Duncan’s murder has disrupted the natural order as its unnatural for an owl to kill a falcon Plant imagery e.g. Macbeth compared to a ‘weed’ Health + diseases represents the state of Scotland under Macbeth’s rule Images of blood symbolise guilt e.g. ‘out damned spot’ + images of water symbolise innocence ‘a little wash clears us of this deed’Masculinity represents aggression + courage ‘when you durst do it, then you were a man’ ‘unsex me’ ‘dispute it like a man’Lack of sleep symbolises guilt ‘wicked dreams’, Lady Macbeth sleep walking
What needs to be included in your answer? PointQuoteExplain Quote Explain Include effects of: form, structure + language Relate cultural, social + historical background Spelling, punctuation + grammar
Give a summery of Act 1 Witch’s prophecies ‘All hail Macbeth that shalt be King hereafter’ (Fate, Fortune + Free Will) ‘Not so happy, yet much happier”To me you speak not’ [Banquo] (Fall of man) ‘Thou shalt get kings, though thou be none’ [to Banquo] Letter from Macbeth to Lady Macbeth (Gender roles i.e. manipulation, the fall of man) ‘That I may pour my spirits in thine ear’ ‘Chastise thee with the valour of my tongue’ Duncan makes Macbeth Thane of Cawdor Lady Macbeth persuades Macbeth to kill Duncan + frame Duncan’s servants ‘I am settles and bend up / Each corporal agent to this terrible feat’ ‘False face must hide, what the false heart doth know’ (Kingship, Natural Order)
Give a summery of Act 2 + 3 Macbeth murders Duncan, Lady Macbeth plants daggers ‘O horror, horror, horror’ [Macduff discovering body] (fate, fortune + freewill, kingship, natural order) Malcolm + Donalbain leave Scotland ‘Ill England’ ‘Ireland, I’ (Reason v passion)Macbeth becomes King ‘Thou hast it now, King Cawdor, Glamis…. I fear/ Thou played’st most foully for ‘t’ (fall of man, nkingship + natural order) Macbeth orders Banquo’s murder ‘have you considered my speaches?…Both of you know Banquo was your enemy’ [Macbeth to murderers] Fleance escapes ‘there will be rain tonight’ ‘ fly good fleance, fly’Macbeth sees Banquo’s ghost at feast ‘Prithee, see there! Behold, look, o! How say you?’ Lennox suspects Macbeth or his murders Macbeth hallucinates dagger ‘Is this a dagger i see before me’ (tragic hero) ‘A gentleman on whom i built absolute trust’ [Duncan of Macbeth]
Give a summery of Act 4 Macbeth visits witches again, who warn Macbeth of Macduff, none of women born can harm Macbeth + that he can’t be beaten until Birnam Wood moves to Dunsinane Hill Macduff has fled to England, Macbeth sends murderers to kill Macduff’s wife + children Macduff learns of Malcolm’s army, + vows to avenge the death of his family ‘For none of women born shall harm Macbeth’ (fate, fortune + free will) ‘Thunder’ (disruption of nature)’When Birnam wood shall come to Dunsinane’ ‘The castle of Macduff I will surprise…his wide, babes + all unfortunate souls’ (the fall of man, tragic hero) ‘When i shall tread upon the tyrants head’ [Macduff]
Give a summery of Act 5 Lady Macbeth goes mad ‘Out damned spot, out i say”What’s done cannot be undone’ Macbeth isn’t afraid of the planned attack of the English army due to the witches prophecy Lady Macbeth kills herself Macbeth finds out Macduff was born by Cesarean ‘For it hath cowed my better part of man…I’ll not fight with thee’ [Macbeth] Macbeth is killed ‘I will fight till from my bones the flesh be hacked’ [Macbeth] Malcolm is made king of Scotland

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