Lord of the Flies

William Golding author fought in Royal Navy
Why were British children being transported overseas in 1940 Britain feared an invasion and evacuated children to other countries
What is LOTF a parody to The coral island
conch shell Symbolizes law and order of the adult world – democracy.Represents the authority the boys are so used to obeying.When Jack destroys it, anarchy takes over because any hope of strong, central leadership has been abandoned
Fire The smoke of the signal fire symbolizes the best hope of the boys being rescued.To Piggy and Ralph, the fire represents the moral influence of their old life in England.Good- Fire reminds them of home, warmth and hopeBad- Destruction
Beastie The beast is seen as a real object on the island which frightens the boys. In reality the beast is only their own internal fear. It is located in the soul and mind of the boys, leading them to the natural chaos of a society with no adults. The beast personifies the fear that every human being on earth feels.
Pig It illustrates the line of aggression which becomes more and more dominant in the course of events. Thus, it is a symbol of Jack’s leadership. The first killing of a pig also foreshadows Piggy’s death. His nickname Piggy contains the word “pig.” He is killed by the hunters like a pig.
the lord of the flies Symbolizes the power of evil and the evilness in the boys (and in humanity).The head is called “Lord of the Flies” which is a translation of the word Beelzebub (name of the devil in the Bible). The Lord of the Flies is connected with the symbol of the pig (or rather, the head of a pig). It is a symbolic dramatization of human evil.
Piggy’s Specs They symbolize the voice of reason and logic among the boys. A symbol of intelligence and education. Notice how Piggy defends his glasses even more than the conch. Piggy uses his glasses to find solutions to the boys’ problems.
The Island The island symbolizes “isolation” and serves as the perfect backdrop for the frailties of human nature which eventually surface.
Face Paint The face paint is the excuse many of the boys use for living as hunting savages, instead of civilized English citizens. It serves as a mask that allows the boys to become someone they are not.
parachute man The dead body flying in the parachute symbolizes the end of adult supervision.Simon has a special connection with the parachute man when he climbs the mountain to determine if the parachute man is still alive.
Scars The scar is where the plane crashed; it symbolizes destruction.Time spent on the island also leaves a scar.The boys destroy themselves and others leaving internal and physical scars.
Ralph This character represents the law-abiding hardworking citizen who works for the good of the group and has faith that everything will turn out all right in the end if the proper rules are obeyed by everyone.ProtagonistCheif His father is in the navy and hopes he will comeMost passionate about making sure the fire keeps going
Jack This character represents the destructive forces in society: ruthless and evil, he plays on the fears of the group to gain power over them. Rather than help society, he wants to dominate it.Obsessed with meat and huntingHe becomes violent and controlling and splits into an new group
Piggy The character stands for the intellectual who tries to solve problems with logic and reason. Because he is considered “different” by the others, they pay little attention to him and he is ineffective despite his intelligence.Distinct characterization- fat with glassesOriginally finds the conchSmashed by a rock when he tries to get his glasses back
Simon This character represents the mystic, spiritual leader or philosopher who functions on a higher plane than the rest of society. He simply “knows” things – but is unable to communicate his knowledge to the others. Able to communicate to Lord of the flies.Mysterious and likes to be aloneHe is stabbed to death
Samneric They are the last to remain loyal to Ralph and they represent the tug-of-war within us to remain good.They are twins and good experts in survival
Littluns The younger kids. Represent the common folk, who easily follow the lead of others into savagery when there is no enforced structure in society.
Moral allegory ralph-common sensepiggy-intellectjack-emotionsimon-soul
political allegory simon-humanism piggy-technologyjack-dictatorshipralph-fair and democractic government
religious allegory simon-deep spirtuality piggy-pure intellectual jack-evil corruption ralph-every day man
psychological allegory piggy-superego jack-idralph-ego
Loss of innocence 1. Jack, at first, couldn’t kill the pig but as he got hungrier and savage he learned to slaughter the feelings . . . and the pig2. Ralph gets caught in the excitement of the mock hunt and helps kill Simon
The descent from civilization to savagery 1. In the beginning, Jack is a simple English boy who leads a choir and can’t kill a pig. He then becomes more savage and in the end has a dictatorship and is leading the kill hunt for Ralph 2. The boys find a conch shell that they use as a symbol of government and leadership (and respect) Throughout the book, the boys lose the meaning of the conch, it ultimately becomes powerless and they boys corrupt their government
The fear of the unknown and its resulting consequences When the boys were unsure if there was a beastie on the island, so they acted out of fear and joined Jack’s dictatorship
The dangers of mob mentality 1. The mock hunt with Robert 2. When they kill Simon (they like hunting after them) The dangers of mob mentality can often lead to corruption in society
The essential nature of humankind 1. When the boys kill Simon, it marks the first time they purposefully kill another human. Even though some thought it was the beast at first, they realized throughout the attack that they were hurting Simon 2. When the boy skilled the pig, it showed how they were losing their identity of proper English boys3. Jack became less and less innocent throughout the book. He couldn’t kill the pig at first but he did not have any doubts about killing at the end of the book Theme Statement: The absence of civilization and adult supervision can often lead to the loss of innocence in children.
Loss of identity 1. When Percival forgets his phone number and address, which he was taught to memorize this once he was young. 2. Jack used to be an innocent little boy, but the temptations of power on the island led him to be a savage, and he lost his identity as a young British boy 3. The masks that they boys put on turned them into savages
The Importance of vision 1. The signal fire: A ship or plane has to see the signal fire if the boys will ever be rescued 2. Piggy’s specs: Piggy’s specs are used to start the fire that can rescue them. He is the only one who has common sense and the ability to reason. As his glasses get destroyed and then eventually taken, this presents a huge loss to Ralph’s group, and the prospects of rescue seem dim. 3. The boy’s hair: The longer the boys are on the island, the longer their hair grows, and the more rapidly they descend into savagery and lose their innocence. Theme Statement: When vision becomes cloudy or impaired, the descent from civilization to savagery may occur.
Describe Piggy He’s large and he has asthma. He doesn’t want to be called piggy. He is bullied by most of the older boys. His father is dead, and his mother is out of the picture. He lived with his Auntie, who was overprotective of him.
How do the boys decide who will be leader? Who should be leader? Who is elected? They have a vote. Ralph seems like and obvious leader because he blew the conch to call the boys and organize the meeting. He is elected, but Jack is clearly put off by that decision. Jack believes he should have been chosen as he is the head boy of the choir boys on the island.
What happens when they find the piglet in the forest? Jack hesitated to kill he pig and then it ran away.
What are the rules for speaking in a meeting? You have to hold the conch. The holder of the conch should not be interrupted. Wherever the conch is, that’s the meeting place.
The government is already showing signs of weakness. What are the signs? They don’t have control over everybody. For instance, the speaker of the conch is getting interrupted. When they come up with an idea, often the boys scatter before they can become organized. They haven’t accounted for everyone, so they can’t tell who might be missing.
How do the boys make a fire? They collect dead wood and pile it up and use Piggy’s specs to start a fire.
What happens to the littlun with the birthmark on his face? He gets lost in the fire, and we can assume he might have died.
How has Jack’s personality changed during his stay on the island? His personality changed because he seems obsessed with hunting and killing a pig. His looks have changed quite a bit. His hair is in his eyes, and he’s sunburned and painted.
List at least three problems the survivors are encountering (think both physically and socially). 1.They can’t kill a pig 2. The boys will only work briefly, then they get distracted. 3. While jack’s priority is hunting, Ralphs priority is shelter and the signal fire. (rescue) They dont work together
Why does he paint his face, and how does the mask make Jack feel? He paints his face so that he can blend in with the vegetation and hunt the pig. It makes him feel free of shame and self-consciousness.
Why were the boys unable to signal the ship they saw on the horizon? Jack and the others went after the pig and let the smoke go out so the ship couldn’t see the ship. They needed enough bodies to trap the pig so that Jack could jump on it and slit its throat.
How does the author show us that Ralph is finally beginning to face the realities of their existence? He is contemplating whether or not he is a good leader. He calls an assembly to discuss the issues the boys are facing: the boys aren’t using the bathroom in the right spot, no one is helping to build the shelter, they aren’t keeping up with the signal fire, and they aren’t collecting the water in the shells for everyone to use.
Compare Ralph’s treatment of the littluns with Jack’s. Ralph is understanding of the littlun’s fears, and he brings it to the group for discussion. Jack is cruel t othe littluns, calling them crybabies and sissies.
What is Simon saying when he thinks the “beast” may be inside the boys themselves? The little kids are afraid of what the boys are becoming–savages.
What do Sam and Eric tell the boys they have seen? What is it actually? They all thought that they saw a beast that was chasing them. They came running down the hill bloody. It is actually a parachutist. Whenever the wind blows it looks like a big beast that is breathing. It also looks very big because of the parachute.
Why do Ralph and Jack decide to go find the beast? They feel like they have too because they have to put the littluns at peace. They won’t feel safe until they kill the beast. They won’t be able to survive on the island by just staying on the platform (signal fire and food). Jack wants to find the beast and kill it so he would have bragging rights and become chief.
How does Ralph react when a boar comes charging down the path? He throws a wooden spear at the boar. He is excited that he drew blood from the boar, even if he didn’t kill it.
What did the boys see on the mountaintop? They saw the parachutist, but they thought it was the beast. They still do not recognize it as a human form.
Although he is not able to get the boys to throw Ralph out of office as chief, Jack manages to overthrow Ralph’s authority anyway. How? He calls Ralph a coward. He points out some of Ralph’s faults, and he makes up derogatory comments that Ralph never said. He points out his own bravery. He asks the boys to vote Ralph out, and when no one does, he cries and storms off to start his own group.
Jack suggests a way to keep the beast happy. What is it? Jack suggests that they can keep the beast happy by giving it offerings, such as a pig’s head.
Describe Simon’s strange encounter with the Lord of the Flies. Who or what is it? The Lord of the Flies is the pig’s head that is surrounded by flies. Simon is prone to fainting and it is very hot so he has a hallucination that the head is talking to him and saying that the evil within the boys is causing terror. He then imagines going inside the mouth of the pig (this is showing all of his fears)
What acts of kindness (there are two) does Simon perform in this chapter? He frees the parachutist, an act of mercy, because the body was in a state of disgrace. He also runs down from the mountain to tell the boys that the beast isn’t real. The boys, in a mob-mentality, jump on Simon and attack him.
What is happening weather-wise on the island? Why is it significant? It’s storming, which makes it harder for the boys to tell it’s Simon in the confusion. Bad weather often symbolizes ominous events in literature.
What happens to Simon when he returns to the group? He is at first mistaken for the “beast,” and then boys attack him. It seems unlikely, however, that they didn’t realize at some that this was Simon.
At the end of this chapter, what happens to both Simon and the parachutist? They end up drifting off into the ocean.
Describe the way that Jack is currently ruling as “chief.” He is harsh and acting like a dictator. He has ordered that Wilfred be tied up, but no one even knows the reason why. This is representative of a totalitarian government.
What happened in the hut? The boys are ambushed by Jack, Maurice, and Roger, who take Piggy’s glasses so that they can have fire.
What happens to the conch and to Piggy? The conch shatters when Piggy dies after being hit by a boulder set loose by Roger.
What is Ralph’s reaction when he encounters the pig’s skull? He is confused when he first sees it, and he can’t figure out if it’s alive. Then he figures out what it is. He also notices that it is a gleaming white, like the conch was. The skull now replaced the conch as a symbol of the boys’ government. He then smashed the pig skull and grabs the spear
Driven by fear and hunger, Ralph manages to make contact with Samneric who are standing guard at Castle Rock. Of what do they warn him? They warn Ralph that Jack’s hunters are sharpening a spear at both ends, and they plan to hunt Ralph.
In what ways does the tribe try to find Ralph? -they push boulders off a cliff down into the thicket where ralph is hiding -they spread out in clotheslines formation -they light a fire to smoke Ralph out
Where is the situational irony in the novel? It’s ironic that the signal fire never attracted a ship; instead, Jack’s fire did. The Naval Officer finds fault with the boys for the way they behave on the island, when as a soldier, he’s responsible for killing others as well.
Fulcrum Where a lever rests
Incredulous Unable to believe
Furtive Secreative
Enmity Hostle
Boody Damn
Stident Loud
Decorm Proper Behavior
Dazzle Paint Camo

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