Hamlet tropes and schemes

synecdoche represents a whole by naming one of its parts or elements
metonomy represents a noun by naming another, inextricably related noun
anthimeria the use of a word as a different part of speech than it is normally, correctly used
asyndenton omission of conjunctions; emphasizes equality among the items
polysyndenton addition of extra conjunctions; emphasizes the multiplicity of items in a list
anadiplosis the repetition of a word or phrase from the end of one phrase, clause, or sentence to the beginning of the next
chiasmus the repetition of reversed grammatical forms in successive clauses

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