Hamlet Renaissance exam

hamlet Prince of Denmark, son of the late King Hamlet and Queen Gertrude
claudius brother of king hamlet, successor as the king of denmark
gurtrude prince hamlets mother, new wife of claudius
polonius lord chamberlain of the court, claudius’ chief advisor
laertes son of polonius
ophelia daughter of polonius and sister of laertes, courted by prince hamlet before the start of the play
horatio hamlets most loyal friend
rosencrantz and guildenstern boyhood friends of hamlet attend university with hamlet
fortinbras son of the late king of norway
ghost spirit of old hamlet, former king of denmark, father of prince hamlet, husband of gurtrude
Motif 1… “rank, gross, rotten” manifestation and consequence of moral corruption
Motif 2… “play, show, The Mousetrap” deception and illusion of role playing; holding a mirror up to nature exposing corruption to the court
Motif 3… “hear, ears’, speak” needed to discover the truth in such a corrupt world; also vehicles for murder and distortion of truth
act 1 scene 1 watchmen bernardo and marcellus see the ghost of late hamlet for two nights. Horatio joins them and the ghost appears then disappears twice without saying anything. they decide they should tell hamlet.
act 1 scene 2 Claudius, the new King of Denmark, gives his inaugural address to the court; explains the fact that he has married his brother’s widow, Gertrude, only a month after her husband’s death. Claudius sends Voltimand (also a courtier) and Cornelius to Norway with a message to young Fortinbras’s uncle, the King of Norway. Laertes wants to go to France. Gertrude tells hamlet Everybody dies, and he should stop wearing all black. Hamlet reveals that he is contemplating suicide. If his own mother is selfish and deceitful. Since everything and everyone is corrupted, Hamlet thinks suicide would be a good idea. Enter Horatio, one of Hamlet’s buddies from Wittenberg and the guy we saw earlier on the battlements. He’s accompanied by Marcellus and Bernardo, whom we also saw on the battlements. Horatio explains that he’s in town for King Hamlet’s funeral. Horatio distracts Hamlet from his misery by telling him about his father’s ghost. Hamlet decides to check it out for himself.
act 1 scene 3 Laertes gets ready to leave for France and cautions Ophelia against falling in love with hamlet as he cannot marry her. Ophelia takes his advice but tells him to practice what he preaches. Polonius gives laertes a lengthy speech about how he should act in france. Laertes leaves, Polonius asks ophelia about her relationship with hamlet and repeats laertes’ advice. she accepts.
act 1 scene 4 Hamlet and the guards search for the Ghost. When they find him, he only wants Hamlet to follow him, so the others stay behind.
act 1 scene 5 The ghost tells Hamlet that he was poisoned and killed by Claudius (instead of being bitten by a snake). The ghost demands Hamlet avenge his murder but not to do anything to Gertrude. Hamlet then makes his companions swear and oath that they won’t know why Hamlet is going to act mad from then on.
act 2 scene 1 Polonius sent Reynaldo to Paris to spy on his son Laertes. He tells the spy to spread rumors about Laertes’ fake lifestyle to see what kind of respond he gets. Ophelia enters and describes her encounter she had with a disheveled Hamlet in her room. Polonius assumes that Hamlet’s recent madness must be the result of his love for Ophelia and runs to tell the king and queen.
act 2 scene 2 Claudius and Gurturde hire Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to find out whats wrong with hamlet. Fortinbras has agreed not to attack denmark but asks for passage through it. Polonius, Claudius and gertrude conspire a meeting between hamlet and ophelia to see if thats the source this madness. Hamlet arranges for the players to act out “The Murder of Gonzago” but with his edits (to act out his fathers murder) to see claudius’ response.
act 3 scene 1 Rosencrantz and guildenstern tell claudius and gurtude that hamlet has organized a play for that eventing, they agree to attend. Polonius and Claudius prep ophelia for her confrontation with hamlet. he is giving his to be or not to be soliloquies hamlet claims he has loved her while also never loving her at all; critiques women for being two faced, and tells ophelia to go to a nunnery. Claudius decides to send hamlet to England hoping to fix him.
act 3 scene 2 Hamlet coaches the actors. Hamlet tells horatio his plan to use the players to reveal his fathers murder and catch claudius off guard; tells horatio to watch claudius. Claudius leaves during the play, the play stops and everyone leaves but horatio and hamlet. Rosencrantz and guildenstern tell hamlet his mother would like to see him. Polonius escorts hamlet.
act 3 scene 3 Claudius wants to send Hamlet to England. Polonius plans to hide behind a curtain in Gertrude’s room to overhear their conversation. Claudius kneels as if to pray and acknowledges his wrongs but ultimately decides not to repent; Hamlet decides not to kill Claudius otherwise he’d send him to heaven and Hamlet to hell.
act 3 scene 4 in Gertrudes chambers. Polonius tells gertrude what to say then hides. Hamlet angrily confronts gertrude. Hamlet kills polonius thinking its Claudius. The ghost appears to remind hamlet of his task, gertrude cannot see the ghost and believes hamlet is mad. Hamlet tells his mom that he is acting crazy. Hamlet leaves with polonius’ body.
act 4 scene 1 Gertrude tells claudius hamlet has gone mad and murdered polonius. Claudius decides hamlet must be sent away immediately. Sends rosencrantz and guildenstern to bring hamlet to him
act 4 scene 2 Hamlet refuses to tell Rosencrantz and Guildenstern where he has put Polonius’s body, accuses them of being spies, will allow them to escort him to Claudius
act 4 scene 3 Claudius tells a group of attendants what he plans to do with hamlet, confronts hamlet until he tells claudius where the body is and tells him he needs to be sent to england for his own good. Tells rosencrantz and guildenstern to follow him and bring the execution order.
act 4 scene 4 Hamlet, rosencrants and guildensters on their was to the ship to england see fortinbras and his army on their way to poland and he tells hamlet they will fight over a small piece of land, hamlet compares himself to fortinbras (soliloquy)
act 4 scene 5 Ophelia, in her madness, sings Bawdy songs. Laertes enters, angry over his father’s death and improper burial, followed by a rebellious mob. Laertes sees Ophelia’s madness and Claudius promises to inform Laertes on how everything happened.
act 4 scene 6 Sailors deliver a letter to Horatio from Hamlet explaining that Hamlet’s ship was besieged by pirates and Hamlet alone has been returned to Denmark.
act 4 scene 7 Claudius explains polonius’ death to laertes. A messenger delivers a letter to claudius from hamlet requesting to meet the following day saying he will explain. Claudius and laertes plan to kill hamlet in a fencing match with poisoned foils and drinks. Gertrude announces ophelia has drowned
act 5 scene 1 gravedigger scene for comic relief, yoricks skull; claudius, gertrude and laertes come to deliver a coffin, hamlet realized its ophelia funeral. Hamlet and laertes jump into the grave and both announce their grief and start fighting. Hamlet proclaims his love for ophelia, gets called mad then runs away. Horatio follows. Claudius tells laertes to remember their plan to kill hamlet
act 5 scene 2 Hamlet tells horatio about switching his death order with one of rosencrantz and gildenstern. Osrick informs hamlet of the frinedly duel. hamlet asks laertes for forgiveness, they duel. the king puts poison in wine and hamlet refuses it, the queen drinks it. laertes hits hamlet they exchange swords, the queen collapses; laertes and queen proclaim they’ve been poisoned. laertes explains to hamlet and he kills claudius and makes him drink the poison. laertes asks for forgiveness and they agree theyre not responsible for all of the deaths. Horatio tried to drink the last of the poisoned wine, hamlet tells him not to and to tell his story and fortinbras should become the new king of denmark. Fortinbras and the ambassadors enter, horatio explains, fortinbras wants hamlet to have a funeral of a solider.
intellectual environment (renaissance) As people became interested in the writings of ancient Greece and Rome, they became more inquisitive and creative.
Humanism (Renaissance) an intellectual movement that greatly influenced Renaissance thinkers, writers, and artists.
printing effects The wide availability of reading material allowed ideas to spread quickly
King Henry VIII 6 wives, no son after 24 years of marriage he asked for annulment, denial inspires him to reform catholic church, creates church of england and declares himself the head of it. He was the “Renaissance man”—poet, musician, athlete, hunter. he supported humanism, and he created Royal Navy, ending foreign invasion; spreads England’s power, language, and literature around globe
irony A contrast between expectation and reality
simile A comparison using “like” or “as”
Metaphor A comparison without using like or as
Allusion A reference to another work of literature, person, or event
Hyperbole exaggeration
Alliteration Repetition of consonant sounds
Personification the giving of human qualities to an animal, object, or idea
Hamlet’s first soliloquy act 1 scene 2 wishes his flesh would melt away and that suicide was not a sin. He is pointless and like an unweeded garden. His father is far superior to his uncle. His mother loved him but didn’t mourn and jumped right into marriage. His heart must break in silence because he cannot mention his feelings aloud
Hamlet’s second soliloquy act 1 scene 5 Hamlet will always remember his father as he swore he would.
Hamlet’s third soliloquy act 2 scene 2 Hamlet says the actor can stir up all kinds of emotions for no real reason but he cannot take action
Hamlet’s fourth soliloquy act 3 scene 1 to live or to die, that is the question. Dying is just sleeping, but no one knows what happens after death. Why deal with everything when you can just end it all?
hamlets fifth soliloquy act 3 scene 2 its the time of night where bad things happen, but hamlet is going to see his mother. he wants to be strong when facing her
hamlets sixth soliloquy act 3 scene 3 he could easily kill claudius but he is praying so if he kills claudius then he will go straight to heaven and hamlet will wait for a time when claudius is sinning to kill him
hamlets seventh soliloquy act 4 scene 4 hamlet has motivation, willpower, ability and means to avenge his fathers death but he cannot take action. Fortinbras’ army is willing to die for something insignificant to them. if his thoughts aren’t violent they are meaningless

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