Hamlet – Prince of Denmark

Hamlet Considered one of Shakespeare’s greatest tragedy
Tragedy A form of drama characterized by seriousness and dignity and involving a great person whose downfall is brought about by either a character flaw of a conflict with some higher power such as the law, gods, fate or society
Aristotle and Tragedy – tells of a person who is “highly renewed and prosperous”- that person undergoes a change of fortune from good to bad- the change is a result of some flaw or error person “not of vice but of some great error or frailty in a character”*tragic flaw (harmartia); most closely translated as mistake – protagonist will mistakenly bring about his own downfall- not because he is sinful or morally weak, but because he does not know enough – plot generates pity and fear in audience *pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves
Themes – revenge- death and its uncertainty – symbol of skull – metaphor of sleep – metaphor of undiscovered country- suicide- corruption (nation is diseased) – insanity- appearance vs. reality- spying
King Hamlet – character from Denmark- dead; now walking as a ghost; in purgatory
Prince Hamlet – character from Denmark- theology student at Wittenburg university; came home for fathers funeral
King Claudius – character from Denmark- brother to dead King Hamlet; current King of Denmark; became king through election or marriage
Queen Gertrude – character from Denmark- Hamlet’s mother
Polonius – character from Denmark- King’s advisor; foolish, talkative man
Laertes – character from Denmark- Polonius’ son; stationed in France for much of the play (in the military)
Ophelia – character from Denmark- Polonius’ daughter; Hamlet’s girlfriend
Horatio – character from Denmark- Hamlets best friend; also a theology student from Wittenburg- rational and a scholar (stand during Bernardo’s watch to confirm if apparition exists or not)
Rosencrantz – character from Denmark- Hamlet’s childhood friend
Denmark’s Guards – Bernardo- Marcellus- Francisco
King Fortinbras – character from Norway – dead King of Norway (only referred to)
Old Norway – character from Norway – current King of Norway (brother of dead King)
Prince Fortinbras – character from Norway – son of dead King; gathering troops to attack Denmark
Motifs (recurring “thing”) – weeds- poison- rot- suicide
Oedipus Complex So what’s up with all the kissing in Mel Gibson’s version? – Oedipus Rex is a Greek tragedy in which King Oedipus unknowingly falls in love with and married his own mother!- Sigmund Freud, a famous psychoanalyst, developed the theory of Oedipus complex, which suggests that every man is secretly in love with his mother (not in an acceptable mother/son way)- does it really occur in Hamlet?
Famous lines “Something is rotten in the state of Denmark” – Marcellus ” O that this too too solid flesh would melt, thaw and resolve itself into dew” – Hamlet”Frailty, thy name is woman!” – Hamlet”To be or not to be?” – Hamlet
Opening scene of Hamlet The opening scene occurs at night, when Francisco is standing guard and Bernardo arrives to relieve of his post.
What is the mood of the opening scene? The mood depicts darkness and confusion as well as an uncertain world due to the transition of one King to another. The changing of the guard mirrors the instability of the political situation in Denmark.
What are the men waiting for in the opening scene? Marcellus and Bernardo are waiting for an apparition to appear. Horatio is with them to see if it is not just their imagination.
What preparations has Denmark made for a possible attack by Norway? – strict and observant changing of the guards- the appointment of King Claudius – foreign dealings (buying weapons) – conscription of ships – accelerated military production- working 24/7
Possible reasons for why the ghost is walking the earth: Horatio offers some reasons for why the ghost is wandering the earth:- it may be asking that a deed be done for it to rest (unfinished business) – it may be warning of impending disaster- it may be repenting for deeds done in the past life
How many times have the men seen the ghost? Bernardo and Marcellus have seen it 4 times; Horatio has seen it twice
BONUS QUESTION The castle is called ELSINOREHoratio is brought by Marcellus because he knows Latin: ghosts speak LATIN
Where does Laertes want to go and why? Laertes wants to go back to France; he came for the coronation.
Why are the King and Queen concerned and upset with Hamlet? What is Hamlet’s behavior? – Hamlet continues to mourn his father past what is appropriate- He regards Claudius as his kin through marriage, but has no connection to him in his heart- Hamlet suggests that his own mother ought to be in mourning
What is King Claudius’ reaction to Hamlet’s grief? – Claudius states that Hamlet’s faith should allow him to rejoice that his father is in eternal rest – Claudius states for Hamlet to protest against his father’s death is against God – Claudius also calls Hamlet’s grief “unmanly”- Claudius states Hamlet should regard him as a father
What action does Hamlet contemplate at the end of Act 1 Scene 2? What were reasons for not choosing this course of action? Suicide: it is against his religion
Analyze Hamlet’s character: – scholar- spends a lot of time in his thoughts – grieves for his father- very religious (disproves of his mother’s marriage) – suicidal – does not see Claudius as a father – “more than kin, less than kind”
Analyze King Claudius’ character: – boisterous – drunkard- sees Hamlet’s grief as “unmanly”- wants Hamlet to see him as a father
What news does Horatio bring to Hamlet? Horatio tells Hamlet of the ghost resembling his father.
Why does Laertes warn Ophelia away from Hamlet? Laertes believes Hamlet will grow out of his love for Ophelia and since he is a royal, will not choose Ophelia. He also warns her from giving away her virginity to Hamlet, as he will not marry her.
7 pieces of advice Polonius gives to Laertes: – do not act on impulse- don’t voice your opinions too readily – be friendly, but not overly so- hold on to your friends- do not give your friendship too easily – avoid getting into fights – if you do get into fights, represent yourself well- don’t dress flashily; follow the dress code of the French – do not borrow or lend money – act yourself but play a role (?)
Polonius’ opinion of Hamlet Polonius believes Hamlet is just playing with Ophelia and that he does not believe his vows are honorable
Why do Hamlet and Horatio hear cannons and trumpets from the castle while they watch for the ghost? What is Hamlet’s reaction to these sounds? Claudius is observing the traditional Danish custom of drunken revelry. Hamlet goes on to criticize this custom, saying that it makes other nations look down on Denmark as a nation of drunkards and ignore all of its good qualities and achievements. In the same way, a man who has been born with a defect in his character is always condemned by others on the basis of that one fault—even if he has many other admirable qualities.
Why does Horatio not want Hamlet to go with the ghost? Horatio believes the Ghost may place Hamlet in mortal danger.
What does the ghost tells Hamlet he is bound to do after he hears the ghost’s tale? Hamlet is bound to revenge his fathers murder
Where is the ghost confine during the day and why? Purgatory; he is waiting for his sins to be absolved before entering heaven
What is the false view Denmark has about King Hamlet’s death? Denmark believes King Hamlet was murdered by a snake in the garden.
Who murdered King Hamlet? Claudius
How was King Hamlet murdered? Claudius poured poison in the sleeping King’s ear.
What three things did Claudius steal from King Hamlet when he murdered him? – wife- crown- life
What is the final aspect of King Hamlet’s murder that torments him? He is stuck in purgatory because he was not able to confess before he died
What request does Hamlet make of Horatio and Marcellus? He makes them swear an oath not to speak of the nights events to anyone
Hamlet predicts that he might “put an antic disposition on”. What does this mean? Hamlet predicts he might put on an unstable demeanor, and requests Horatio and Marcellus not to act like they know anything about it.
What is Polonius’ plan to “check up” on Laertes in France? – Polonius instructs his servant, Reynaldo, to spy on Laertes, who has recently returned to Paris. He advises Reynaldo as to his preferred methods of gathering information about his sons’ behaviour. These involve making indirect inquiries about his conduct. – Not only does Polonius ask Reynaldo to spy on his son, he also encourages his servant to throw about some sordid insinuations about Laertes with a view to discovering the truth regarding his behaviour. Polonius’ exchanges with Reynaldo reveal both his hypocrisy and baseness of mind. In Act 1, he lectured Laertes about morality, but here he seems to view drinking and carousing as the expected behaviour of all red-blooded young men. This conversation also gives us an insight into the old man’s methods and surveillance techniques.- Polonius explains the reasoning behind his request to Reynaldo, telling him that spreading some rumours about Laertes will provoke others who may know the truth about his behaviour to speak openly of what they know.
What happens in the scene between Hamlet and Ophelia that Ophelia relates to her father? An upset and distracted Ophelia enters the room and tells Polonius that a wildly dishevelled Hamlet has just appeared in her private rooms. Along with his strange appearance it seems that he was also acting in a bizarre manner. Polonius immediately concludes that Hamlet has been driven mad by his love for Ophelia.
What about Hamlet’s behavior is odd to Polonius and Ophelia? Hamlet was very disheveled and didn’t say a word to Ophelia, only stared at her, grabbed her wrists and deeply sighed.
What is Polonius’ conclusion about Hamlet? Hamlet is madly in love with Ophelia
Why has Claudius sent for Rosencratz and Guildenstern? He wants them to spend some time with Hamlet, with a view to discovering the cause of his troubled behaviour. Gertrude also entreats them to find out what is wrong with her son and promises them a healthy reward for their efforts.
Why is it ironic when Polonius says “brevity is the soul of wit”? Polonius takes quite a while to get to the point- he is referring to that fact that speaking little and to the point is witty
What is Polonius and Claudius’ plan to test if Hamlet is mad with love for Ophelia? Claudius is sceptical, and Polonius proposes that they test his theory by arranging a meeting between Hamlet and Ophelia. Claudius and Polonius will observe their encounter, concealed behind a tapestry. Claudius agrees and at this point, Hamlet appears, apparently absorbed by a book he is reading.
Why does Hamlet call Polonius a “fishmonger”? – a fishmonger is a person who prostitutes – Hamlet hints that Polonius is using his daughter
Why is Hamlet acting the way he is? Hamlet is using everyone’s opinion of being mad to his advantage, by hinting insults to Polonius (which Polonius himself does not realize).
What does Hamlet mean when he says “Denmark is a prison”? Hamlet is not allowed to leave Denmark and sees it as someplace he cannot leave, as he is bound to avenge his father’s murder.
What does Hamlet say when he describes his condition to Rosencratz and Guildenstern? Hamlet says there is no happiness for him in this life and describes his “melancholy”.
Hamlet’s mental condition: Depression
Hamlet’s plan to test the ghost: Before the First Player leaves, Hamlet asks him to perform ‘The Murder of Gonzago’ the following night for the court. He also requests that the First Player insert an additional speech that Hamlet, himself, will write.
Why does Hamlet feel the need to “test” the Ghost? Hamlet wants to show a play, called “The Murder of Ganzago”, to determine whether it affects Claudius’ conscience, which would determine that the ghost was not manipulating him. Hamlet wants to add a speech written by himself and asks if the actors will include this- they agree.
Examples of characters spying on each other: – Polonius and Claudius spying on Hamlet and Ophelia – Polonius orders Reynaldo to spy on Laertes to determine if he is acting accordingly – Hamlet will spy on Claudius during the play to determine his guilt- Rosencratz and Guildenstern will spy on Hamlet to determine what is bothering him
Examples of “appearance vs. reality”: – King Hamlet’s death- Hamlet appears mad but is he? – Rosencratz and Guildenstern appear to act as Hamlet’s friend, but they are ordered by Claudius and Gertrude to spy on Hamlet
Hamlet’s strengths and weaknesses: Weaknesses: – emotionally unstable – depression- religion (preventing him from taking revenge) Strengths:- cunning, sly- clever with words- can quickly determine people’s motives
Polonius, Claudius, and Ophelia’s plan to determine the cause of Hamlet’s lunacy: Polonius and Claudius will hide behind a tapestry and then judge from Hamlet’s reactions to Ophelia whether he really is becoming mad due to love.
Explain Claudius’s statement, “Oh, tis too true! How smart a lash that speech doth give my conscience!” – Claudius disguises his ugliness with clever words and false emotions.- For the first time, we gain an insight into Claudius’ mind and discover that he harbours a guilty conscience due to an unspecified ‘deed’. This is the first indication, outside of Hamlet’s suspicions and the Ghost’s claims, that Claudius is guilty of a crime.
Hamlet’s soliloquy in Act 3: Hamlet considers the conundrum of humanity’s existence: why do we persist with our uncertain fate instead of ending it all through death? If death is nothing more than an eternal slumber, it’s surely a more attractive prospect than life. On the other hand, the sleep of death may involve dreams and visions that may cause more suffering than anything in life. This uncertainty is what drives humans to endure the trials of life—the fear of something worse after death. In this soliloquy, a series of dualities is presented, conveying very effectively the theme of man’s indecision and uncertainty in the world.
Hamlet’s main argument against suicide. You don’t know where you will end up, as death is an untraveled country.
Justify Hamlet’s treatment of Ophelia in scene 1. – Hamlet sees Ophelia and is pleasantly happy – Hamlet becomes angry when Ophelia attempts to return his gifts – Hamlet uses the recurring motif of feminine beauty as deceptive. His exchange with Ophelia shows us how deeply his view of women has been affected by his mother’s remarriage which he sees as a betrayal of his father. Seeing Gertrude’s behaviour as typically female, Hamlet now sees beauty only as a mask for moral ugliness and assumes that Ophelia is no exception. Virtue and beauty cannot coexist without the latter corrupting the former. This indicates Hamlet’s deeply troubled attitude towards women in general.- Hamlet becomes angry at her and maintains that he never loved her. Becoming more agitated, he declares that she is a sinner and should be dismissed to a nunnery so that she will never marry and bear more sinners. He leaves, and Ophelia laments the loss of the Hamlet that she once knew.
How does Hamlet threaten Claudius when he discovers Claudius and Polonius are spying on him? “Those that are married already, all but one, shall live;the rest shall keep as they are.” – Hamlet is threatening that Claudius will not survive but Gertrude will.
King Claudius plans for Hamlet at the end of scene 1: – Claudius, shrewd as ever, seems to doubt Hamlet’s madness due to love and instead advances the carefully-worded insinuation that he is plotting against the state – that Hamlet is the ‘something … rotten in the state of Denmark’. As king, the only possible response to such a threat is to send Hamlet away, a solution that would eminently suit Claudius. – Polonius suggests Gertrude speak to Hamlet, a meeting he will spy on, (which results in fatal consequences for himself) and Claudius reluctantly agrees.
Horatio’s character as Hamlet describes him: Hamlet delivers a lengthy tribute to Horatio, showing that he values Horatio’s friendship highly. This is Hamlet at his most sincere, offering a contrast with his behaviour towards the others who will arrive to watch the play. This speech also gives the strong impression that Hamlet sees Horatio as a sort of mirror image—that is, as the person he’d like to be—someone who is emotionally steady and not disconcerted by fortune’s fickleness.
What does Hamlet ask Horatio to do in scene 2? Hamlet asks Horatio to observe Claudius during the play, possibly because he does not trust his own eyes and sees Horatio’s scholarly and rational demeanor as being one to miss nothing.
The play-within-the-play: The Murder of Gonzago
Why does Hamlet refer to the play-within-the-play as “The Mousetrap.” It is a mousetrap to determine Claudius’ conscience and “trap” his guilt.
King Claudius’s reaction to the play: – Claudius begins to show some unease as he asks if there is anything in the play that’s likely to offend. – Claudius finally responds to Hamlet’s play in agitation and flees the hall
Why does Hamlet compares himself to a recorder? Hamlet says to Guildenstern, “if you can’t even play a recorder, why do you think you can play me?”
Hamlet’s “pep talk” to himself before he visits his mother at the end of scene 2: Hamlet will speak cruelly to her, but he will not use cruelty in actions.
Claudius’s dilemma as he tries to pray in scene 3: Claudius is not repentant; in order to be truly forgiven, he must be truly repentant, and he realizes that he is not.
Why does Hamlet does not kill Claudius when he discovers Claudius in an attitude of prayer? Hamlet wants Claudius to eternally suffer, and he feels if he kills Claudius while he’s praying, Claudius will not suffer as much.
Irony that occurs at the end of scene 3: Hamlet refused to kill Claudius whilst praying, which ironically Claudius did not end up doing.
How and why does Hamlet “accidentally” kill Polonius? Hamlet hears a sound behind the curtain and stabs it, thinking it a rat, sees Polonius, declares him a foolish man and shows little remorse for killing him.
Explain how Hamlet “sets up a glass/ where {his mother] may see the inmost part of [herself].”
The Ghost’s purpose in reappearing to Hamlet: The ghost is demanding why Hamlet has not enacted revenge upon Claudius.
Climax of the play: When Hamlet stabs Polonius through the arras in Act III, scene iv, he commits himself to overtly violent action and brings himself into unavoidable conflict with the king.
Describe Hamlet as a tragic hero. What are his strengths and weaknesses? Describe his character flaw: Strengths:- cunningness- wittinessWeaknesses:- religion – too introspective
Explain how the Queen protects Hamlet when she talks to Claudius. Gertrude follows Hamlet’s demand of telling Claudius he is truly mad, purposely leaving out Hamlet’s threat to Claudius and doesn’t mention the ghost of King Hamlet.
Explain why Claudius needs to hide the haste with which he sends Hamlet away. Claudius needs to hide the haste because he doesn’t want Hamlet’s madness to reflect on him and be common knowledge amongst the country and he doesn’t it to seem that he sees Hamlet as a threat. He also does not want for people to know he killed King Hamlet, which he suspects Hamlet knows.
Hamlet lists three places where Polonius’s body could be. Describe these: – At supper (Polonius is in the ground being eaten by worms)- in heaven and hell (Hamlet says if he doesn’t find him in heaven, Claudius can go seek him himself in hell) – in the lobby (Hamlet says Claudius will smell him as he goes up)
Describe Claudius’s plan to “get rid of” Hamlet. Be thorough. – Claudius expresses grief for Hamlet’s present condition- in the same speech, he declares Hamlet will leave for England with “companions”, Rosencratz and Guildenstern to spy on him (impression) – Claudius has demanded the King of England to execute Hamlet
Fortinbras reappears in Act 4, scene 4, causing Hamlet to reflect on his own situation. Summarize Hamlet’s soliloquy at the very end of scene 4. Hamlet realizes Fortinbras acts boldly and wishes he was that way; while he may admire his boldness, he does not necessarily agree with Fortinbras (as he is fighting a battle only for glory), he admires his forwardness – Hamlet claims he internalizes emotions too much and thinks way too much- He determines from now on he will be all action and less thought
Hamlet considers himself a coward. Agree or disagree with Hamlet. Justify your response. – Hamlet is not a coward; his reactions to avenging someone are natural; he wants evidence and is hesitant because murder is foul. – Hamlet takes everything into account before acting, and is in a moral dilemma
Ophelia’s condition in scene 5; why has this happened? Ophelia has gone mad for grief due to her fathers death.
Claudius says that when sorrows come “they come not single spies but in battalions.” Explain what that line means. List the sorrows Claudius enumerates. Claudius means when bad things come, they come in many events, not just one.- Hamlet going mad- Ophelia going mad- Polonius dying- Claudius having to send Hamlet to England
Explain Laertes reappearance in Act 4. Laertes seeks revenge for his father’s murder and the public wishes to see him on the throne
Describe what happens to Hamlet on his journey to England. Hamlet was attacked by pirates, which separated him from Rosencratz and Guildenstern
Describe the scheme Claudius and Laertes devise in scene 7. Include all the components, even the back-up plan. – In order to reduce the chance of Laertes and Hamlet coming into contact before Claudius’ plan can be executed, he advises Laertes to remain in his chambers once Hamlet arrives. The charade of a fencing match will provide the opportunity for Hamlet’s demise—a murder that will pass as an accident, while also allowing Claudius to avoid getting his hands dirty, so to speak. – To ensure Hamlet’s death, Laertes plans to ‘anoint’ his sword with a poisonous substance that will result in certain death for anyone so much as grazed by its tip. Such thinking is entirely in line with that of Claudius. In fact, the King plots to maximize the use of this poison, by also using it to taint the drink that will be served to Hamlet during the fencing match. Claudius is obviously unwilling to take any chances that Hamlet survives yet another assassination attempt.
Explain what final “sorrow” Queen Gertrude delivers at the end of Act 4. Ophelia has drowned, covered in garlands of flowers.
Jusitify, based on what you know about her, whether Ophelia’s death is an accident or suicide. Use specifics from the text to support your response. Suicide; Ophelia seemed highly depressed and mad.
Following the climax of the play in Act 3, list, in order, the pieces of falling action
Identify Hamlet’s tragic flaw.
Summarize the controversy that the Clowns (the gravediggers) discuss in the opening scene: If a person commits suicide, then the church at the time does not allow those to be buried in the consecrated ground
Explain the irony of Hamlet’s joking with the gravedigger: – Hamlet is acutely aware of the irony of the situation: in life, the lawyer may have owned vast amounts of land, but in death his estate has been reduced to the size of a coffin.- Hamlet has met his match in verbal sparring
Describe the emotional scene that takes place at Ophelia’s grave between Hamlet and Laertes: Laertes’ overblown rhetoric, provokes an infuriated Hamlet to reveal himself to the funeral party. He mocks Laertes’ overwrought declarations (‘Who is he whose grief/Bears such an emphasis?’) before leaping into Ophelia’s grave himself. Laertes attacks Hamlet and the pair grapple before being pulled apart by Claudius’ men.
How was Hamlet was able to avoid being executed in England as per Claudius’s orders – Hamlet continues on with his tale, explaining to an incredulous Horatio what happened once he had discovered the order for his death. Devising a new letter, he requested the immediate execution of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern before they even had time to confess their sins. (According to Hamlet’s account, on discovering the plot against him he reacted with more resolve than we had seen heretofore. He seems to have finally stopped procrastinating and started living up to his vows to act.)- Horatio wonders how Hamlet managed to seal the new letter ordering the deaths of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Hamlet explains that, as luck would have it, he had his father’s signet ring with him, which he used to imprint the seal with the official Danish stamp. The next day was the sea-fight where he was captured by pirates.
Summarize Hamlet’s speech to Laertes prior to the fencing match. – Hamlet apologizes to Laertes, claiming that whatever wrongs he has inflicted on Laertes have been the result of his madness and not any deliberate desire to inflict pain. *Many critics have described Hamlet’s apology as half-hearted and hypocritical. If we take it that Hamlet was never genuinely mad, then pleading insanity as the reason for his behaviour certainly seems a little disingenuous. An alternative view is that Hamlet considers the violent frenzy that resulted in his killing Polonius, to be a form of madness. However, this cannot entirely absolve his behaviour.
How does Gertrude die? Hamlet is sweating from his exertions, so Gertrude steps forward and gives him her handkerchief so that he can wipe his brow. She lifts Hamlet’s poisoned cup to toast his success. Although Claudius makes a feeble attempt to stop her, she drinks anyway and then offers the cup to Hamlet. The prince, however, declines.
How does Hamlet get wounded? Hamlet and Laertes fight again but the result is a tie. Frustrated, Laertes attacks Hamlet off-guard and wounds him.
How does Laertes die? A scuffle ensues after Laertes attacks hamlet off-guard, during which Hamlet and Laertes exchange swords since they dropped them, and Hamlet then wounds Laertes with the poisoned rapier.
How does Claudius die? Laertes explains to Hamlet that the tip of his rapier is poisoned and that they will both shortly die. He exposes Claudius as the architect of the treachery that has occurred. Hamlet turns on Claudius with the poisoned rapier and wounds him. For good measure, he then forces Claudius to drink the poisoned wine and the King quickly dies from the double dose of poison. Laertes seeks forgiveness and reconciliation from Hamlet before joining Claudius.
Explain why Horatio attempts to take his own life at the end of the play. Explain why Hamlet stops him. As death looms for Hamlet, he is concerned that his story is recounted accurately. He asks Horatio to ‘report me and my cause aright’, but Horatio is more interested in following Hamlet to the grave and grabs the poisoned cup to drink the remaining potion. With whatever remaining strength he has, Hamlet grabs the cup out of Horatio’s hand and pleads with his friend to remain alive to tell the story. Horatio’s steadfast loyalty to Hamlet throughout the play offers a redeeming glimpse of humanity. His desire to die with his friend is a testament to the character of both men.
Describe Fortinbras’s appearance at the end of the play. Explain the irony of this situation. Osric explains that Fortinbras has arrived following his victory in Poland, and has fired a cannon to salute the English ambassadors who are also approaching Elsinore. In nominating Fortinbras as the future King of Denmark, Hamlet restores stability to the State. His final words (‘The rest is silence’) are suitably enigmatic and, like many elements of the play itself, open to interpretation.
Cause: Claudius kills King Hamlet Effect:
Cause: Hamlet sees the Ghost Effect:
Cause: Polonius forbids Ophelia to see Hamlet Effect:
Cause: Hamlet kills Polonius Effect:
Cause: Hamlet rewrites Claudius’s orders Effect:
Cause: Hamlet agrees to take part in the fencing match Effect:
Cause: Claudius poisons the wine Effect:
Cause: Laertes poisons his sword Effect:
Cause: Fortinbras arrives in Denmark Effect:

You Might Also Like