Hamlet – AP English IV

What was Shakespeare’s inspiration for “Hamlet”? “Ur Hamlet”
“Hamlet” is considered Shakespeare’s best and longest play.
What is an anachronism? something placed in a time period in which it does not belong
What is an aside? lines intended only for the audience
What is blank verse? unrhymed iambic pentameter
What is a soliloquy? speech made by a character while he is alone on stage (if other characters are present, they do not hear him)
What are the 6 Characteristics of a Shakespearean Tragedy? Tragic Hero with Tragic FlawHumorConflictsSupernaturalRevenge MotiveChance Happening
Tragic Hero with Tragic Flaw: A tragic hero is a…The tragic flaw is a… Tragic Hero: A main character whose death affects the course of the empire. Ex. Hamlet Tragic Flaw: A character weakness that leads to his downfall. Ex. Hamlet’s procrastination
Humor is… comic relief.Ex. graveyard diggers/clowns
ConflictsExternal conflict is… Internal conflict is… External: the struggle that affects the empire. Ex. conflict between Hamlet and ClaudiusInternal: the struggle within a character. Ex. Hamlet and his conflict between his desire to act and his flaw of procrastination
Supernatural is… something extraordinary.Ex. ghost of King Hamlet
Revenge Motive is… someone wants to “get back” at someone else.Ex. Hamlet wants revenge for his father, who was killed by King Claudius.Ex. Prince Fortinbras wanting to get back at Prince Hamlet by invading Denmark.
Chance Happening is… something unplanned that leads to a catastrophe. Ex. death of Polonius
Character: Hamlet Prince Hamlet, son of King Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, melancholy, bitter, cynical, procrastinates
Character: King Claudius: brother of the late King Hamlet, uncle of Prince Hamlet, antagonist/villain of the play, calculating, ambitious, driven by desire for power, but occasionally shows sounds of guilt (his love for Queen Gertrude seems sincere)
Characters: Bernardo and Marcellus officers who first see the ghost walking the ramparts of Elsinore and who summon Horatio to witness it;Marcellus is present when Hamlet first encounters the ghost
Character: Francisco a Danish soldier and guardsman at Elsinore
Character: The Ghost the ghost of King Hamlet who comes back to tell Hamlet about his murder
Character: Osric the foolish courtier who summons Hamlet to his duel with Laertes
Character: Polonius father of Ophelia and Laertes, Lord Chamberlain to King Claudius, pompous, likes to sound important, talkative, oblivious when he is being made fun of, iskilled by Hamlet when eavesdropping on his and his mother’s conversation
Character: Ophelia Hamlet’s love, Polonius’s daughter, beautiful and young, obeys her father and brother (Laertes), lapses into madness after her father’s death, drown in the r river while gathering flowers (falls into river and clothes are weighed down by water; she drowns)
Character: Horatio Hamlet’s friend and confidant, studied with Hamlet at Wittenberg, loyal and helpful to Hamlet throughout the play, remains alive after Hamlet’s death to tell Hamlet’s story
Characters: Voltemand and Cornelius courtiers at the Danish court, sent to Norway by KingClaudius to persuade the king to prevent Fortinbras from attacking
Characters: Rosencrants and Guildenstern two courtiers at the Danish court, formerfriends of Hamlet from Wittenberg, summoned by King Claudius and Gertrude to discover cause of Hamlet’s strange behavior/madness
Character: Queen Gertude widow of the late King Hamlet, now married to Claudius
Characters: Gravediggers noted as “clowns”; dig Ophelia’s grave, add humor to the tragedy
What is the source of Hamlet? traces back to Scandinavian literature to Saxo Grammaticus
What is the setting? late middle ages (14th and 15th centuries, or 1300 to 1499) in and around (mostly) the royal palace in Elsinore, a city in Denmark
What type of plot does the play have? tragedy
Where had Hamlet been attending school? Wittenburg in Germany
How is Claudius related to Hamlet? Uncle (Hamlet’s father’s brother)
What is Polonius’ title? Lord Chamberlain
What does Hamlet promise the ghost? He promises to avenge his father’s death.
What proves to Hamlet and Horatio the king’s guilt? when Claudius leaps up and leaves the room during the murder in the play
Describe Polonius. pompous, likes to sound important, talkative, oblivious when he is being made fun of
Character: Reynaldo servant to Polonius, sent to France by Polonius to check up on/spy on Laertes
Character: Fortinbras young Prince of Norway, whose father King Fortinbras was killed by King Hamlet, wishes to attach Denmark to avenge his father’s honor, making him another foil for Prince Hamlet
Character: Laertes Polonius’s son, Ophelia’s brother, for most of the play is in France, returns for his father’s funeral
Describe Claudius. antagonist/villain of the play, calculating, ambitious, driven by desire for power, but occasionally shows sounds of guilt (his love for Queen Gertrude seems sincere)
Where did Laertes go? Why did he return? France; returns for Polonius’s funeral
Did Polonius think that Hamlet was insane? Why? Polonius thinks that Hamlet is mad because of the way he comes into Ophelia’s dressing room. He is not dressed appropriately and is wild with love. Hamlet also frightens Ophelia.
Who saw the ghost first? Marcellus and Barnardo (soldiers)
When did the ghost disappear? at the crowing of the cock (because this signifies morning)
What does “I am but mad north-north-west” mean? This is a classic example of the “wild and whirling words” with which Hamlet hopes to persuade people to believe that he is mad. These words, however, prove that beneath his “antic disposition,” Hamlet is very sane indeed.
How does Hamlet describe Osric? as a waterfly
Why does Hamlet fail in his motives? he procrastinates
What was the play that Hamlet wanted the players to perform named? To what did Hamlet change it? The Murder of Gonzago; The Mousetrap
When does Hamlet see the ghost for the second time? Hamlet is arguing with his mother. The ghost appears and tells Hamlet to be gentle with his mother and not to harm her. Gertrude, Hamlet’s mother, thinks her son is crazy because she sees nothing. The ghost disappears into the night and that is the last time he is seen in the play.
What was the watchword given by Bernardo? Long live the king.
How much money was Fortinbras paid to fight the Polacks? Why? By whom? 60,000 crowns by his uncle to leave Claudius and Denmark alone
What is a jig-maker? Dumbshow? Jig-maker: comic or jokerDumbshow: a pantomime show
What is the name of the castle? The town? Kronburg Castle, Elsinore
Who were digging Ophelia’s grave? How did she die? two gravediggers/clowns; drowning while picking flowers (clothes weighed her down when she fell into the water)
What was the season of the year when Hamlet returns home from school? winter
Who is Voltemand? a courtier at the Danish court, sent to Norway by KingClaudius to persuade the king to prevent Fortinbras from attacking
Who is Francisco? a Danish soldier and guardsman at Elsinore
Who is Reynaldo? a servant to Polonius, sent to France by Polonius to check up on/spy on Laertes
Who is Benardo? an officer who first see the ghost walking the ramparts of Elsinore and who summons (with Marcellus) Horatio to witness it
What do Hamlet’s soliloquies tell us about him? He has a desire to act but his procrastination creates an obstacle for him.
Who thought Hamlet would lose the fencing match? Horatio
Who carries Hamlet’s body from the stage? four of Fortinbras’s captains
Explain the altercation between King Hamlet and King Fortinbras. The two kings challenged each other to single-hand combat over each other’s land. King Hamlet won by killing King Fortinbras.
Explain the plot between Claudius and Laertes. Claudius wants Hamlet dead because Hamlet is trying to ruin him because he murdered King Hamlet. Laertes wants Hamlet dead because Hamlet killed Polonius, his father. The two plan to have Hamlet compete in a fencing match against Laertes. Laertes plans to poison the tip of his sword, but to be sure, Claudius prepares a cup of poisoned wine in case Hamlet wins the match.

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