hamlet act 4 sc 1

There’s matter in these sighs, these profound heaves.You must translate. ‘Tis fit we understand them. claudius asking gertrude: These deep, heaving sighs of yours mean something. You have to tell me what. I need to know. Where’s your son?
Mad as the sea and wind when both contendWhich is the mightier. gertrude telling claudius how hamlet is: As mad as the waves and the wind when they struggle together in a storm. In an insane rage, he hears something behind the tapestry, whips out his sword, shouts, “A rat, a rat!” and in his deranged state of mind he kills the good old man, who is still hidden.
His liberty is full of threats to all—To you yourself, to us, to everyone. claudius to gertrude claudius saying halmet’ wiildness is a threat Oh, this is terrible! It would’ve happened to me if I’d been there. His wildness is a threat to all of us—to you, to me, to everyone.
It will be laid to us, whose providenceShould have kept short, restrained and out of haunt, claudius to gertrude telling about hamlet treating gertrude: How will we deal with this violent deed? I’m the one who will be blamed for not restraining and confining this mad young man.
But, like the owner of a foul disease,To keep it from divulging, let it feedEven on the pith of life. claudius to gertrude So, like someone suffering from a nasty disease who refuses to divulge his condition and lets it infect him tothe core, I kept Hamlet’s condition secret and let it grow more and more dangerous. Where has he gone?
like some oreAmong a mineral of metals base,Shows itself pure. gertrude to claudius: -gertrude says that hamlet is weeping over the dead body he has killedHis madness allows a glimmering of morality to shine through, like a vein of gold in a chunk of coal. He weeps for what he has done.
and this vile deedWe must, with all our majesty and skill,Both countenance and excuse. claudius to gertrude – shipping hamlet as soon as sun sets and deals with the deed w/ all their diplomatic know-how to explain and deal with the murder [using their authority and political skills to deal with and excuse the murder ] – king is showing power over hamlet
CLAUDIUSO Gertrude, come away!The sun no sooner shall the mountains touchBut we will ship him hence, and this vile deedWe must, with all our majesty and skill,Both countenance and excuse.—Ho, Guildenstern! -r+g and come in even though they were asked to leave the room and gertrude asked for privacy
Go seek him out, speak fair, and bring the bodyInto the chapel. claudius to r+ g: Go find him and speak nicely to him, and bring the corpse into the chapel. Please hurry.
So dreaded slander—Whose whisper o’er the world’s diameter,As level as the cannon to his blank,Transports the poisoned shot claudius to gertrude: Let’s hope slander—a bullet that can travel halfway around the world and still hit its exact target—spares us. ______________________________We’ll confer with our wisest friends and tell them what we’re going to do, and what terrible deed has been done already. Let’s hope slander—a bullet that can travel halfway around the world and still hit its exact target—spares us. Oh, we must go. I’m full of confusion and despair.
how does the king feel right after receiving news of hamlet klling polonius -full of confusion and despair [utter loss of hope]
That I can keep your counsel and not mine own. Besides, to be demanded of a sponge! hamlet to r+g : That I’d take your advice rather than keep my own secret. Besides, you’re a sponge! What is the son of a king supposed to say to a sponge?
He keeps them, like an ape, in the corner of his jaw, first mouthed to be last swallowed. hamlet to r+g: Yes, sir, a sponge that soaks up the king’s approval, his rewards, and his decisions. Officers like that give the king the best service in the end. He keeps them in his mouth like an ape. First he moves them around, then he swallows them. When he needs what you have found out, he can just squeeze you like a sponge and you’ll be dry again.
why does hamlet call r+g a sponge jsut soak up what the king says and obeys orders. he has none of his own thoughts and gives the king whatever info he pleases –r+g don’t understand what hamlet is saying about the analogy of a sponge: HAMLETI am glad of it. A knavish speech sleeps in a foolish ear.—-I’m glad about that. Sly words are never understood by fools.
The body is with the king, but the king is not with the body.The king is a thing— hamlet to r+g: The body’s with the king, but the king’s not with the body. The king’s a thing …- the physical body, which ages and dies, is with the king. but the king, who doesn’t believe in death and dying since he murders his own brother is behaving like he will live forever, is ignoring the inevitability of death-legal doctrine —the king in his own person can make laws and enforce them , but if the king dies the laws and obedience one owes doesn’t die with him [ex: the ghost]. the “king” is a conceptual thing, a concept that outlives any physical manifestation or a body. the king is merely a title or an idea of nothing and is only made up to be so grand b/c of the king’s subjects –claudius is a useless thing that does nothing, and hamlet is going to kill him and make him nothing —hamlet could be referring to the ghost which is only a thing now http://genius.com/5706722 http://kenneth-chan.com/qod/article2.htmlhttp://shakespeare-navigators.com/hamlet/Pap.html
why does hamlet start saying the king is a thing but then stop and say its nothing of importance when r+g question him lure a response out of r+g to see if they can think for themselves -when hamlet replies nothing, meaning the king is nothing and so is the idea of a king and if hamlet has his way, claudius will become nothing
Of nothing. Bring me to him. Hide, fox, and all after. hamlet to r+g A thing of no importance. Take me to him. Ready or not, here I come!
Who like not in their judgment, but their eyes.And where ’tis so, th’ offender’s scourge is weighed,But never the offense. claudius to himself The people love him, because they judge based on appearance rather than reason. They’ll pay attention to the severity of the punishment, not the severity of the crime.claudius makes a simliar criticsm of hamlet as hamlet always says claudius is not what he seems —————————–I have sent to seek him and to find the body.How dangerous is it that this man goes loose!Yet must not we put the strong law on him.He’s loved of the distracted multitude,Who like not in their judgment, but their eyes.And where ’tis so, th’ offender’s scourge is weighed,But never the offense. To bear all smooth and even,This sudden sending him away must seemDeliberate pause. Diseases desperate grownBy desperate appliance are relieved,Or not at all.————————————–I’ve sent men to find him and retrieve the body. How dangerous to have this madman on the loose! But we can’t throw him in jail. The people love him, because they judge based on appearance rather than reason. They’ll pay attention to the severity of the punishment, not the severity of the crime. No, we must seem calm and fair-minded, and our sending him away must seem like a carefully considered move. But a terminal disease requires extreme treatment, or nothing at all.
Your worm is your only emperor for diet. We fat all creatures else to fat us, and we fat ourselves for maggots. hamlet to claudiusNot where he eats, but where he is eaten. A certain convocation of politic worms are e’en at him. Your worm is your only emperor for diet. We fat all creatures else to fat us, and we fat ourselves for maggots. Your fat king and your lean beggar is but variable service—two dishes, but to one table. That’s the end.————————Not where he’s eating, but where he’s being eaten. A certain CONFERENCE OF WORMSHamlet is punning on a famous event in European history, the Diet of Worms, which was a gathering convened by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1521.conference of worms is chowing down on him. Worms are the emperor of all diets. We fatten up all creatures to feed ourselves, and we fatten ourselves for the worms to eat when we’re dead. A fat king and a skinny beggar are just two dishes at the same meal. That’s all I have to say.
discuss what happened with the whole scene with claudius and hamlet talking about polonius -claudius does not really know polonius is dead
Your worm is your only emperor for diet. We fat all creatures else to fat us, and we fat ourselves for maggots. hamlet to claudius Not where he eats, but where he is eaten. A certain convocation of politic worms are e’en at him. Your worm is your only emperor for diet. We fat all creatures else to fat us, and we fat ourselves for maggots. Your fat king and your lean beggar is but variable service—two dishes, but to one table. That’s the end._____________________________-Polonius is at supper, but not as a guest-as the meal. —Hamlet’s ironic language implies that Polonius, the high-ranking political counsellor, is now, in death, outranked by an assembly of worms eating him.-Worms are the emperor of all diets.—–This is an allusion to the Diet of Worms, an assembly [not anything related to worms] of the Holy Roman Empire to hear Martin Luther’s doctrine in 1521 and decide what to do about luther’s teachings ; not realy related to polonius but shows hamlet’s intelligence and knowledge —Through life we fatten livestock for our food,By which we make ourselves fatbut in the end we are but food for worms.—–Hamlet poetically states that, regardless of social status during life, all men die and are consumed by maggots in the grave-and so become “dishes” at the same “table.” Death is blind to power and privilege.
A man may fish with the worm that hath eat of a king, and eat of the fish that hath fed of that worm. hamlet to claudius A man can fish with the worm that ate a king, and then eat the fish he catches with that worm.Hamlet is describing the circle of life: how one living creature serves as sustenance for another. Ultimately we are all worm food-and that worm, in turn, serves as food for other creatures.
how does hamlet reply when claudius questions hamlet’s remark on circle of life w/ worms Nothing but to show you how a king may go a progress through the guts of a beggar.Hamlet meditates more extensively on this same theme: the indignity of death, even for the powerful.This is also another instance of the conflict between seeming and being, an important motif of the play.What sets a king apart from a beggar? Their speech, clothes, surroundings,… or in one word, their appearances. To nature there is no real difference between the two; a reminder to Claudius of his powers’ limitations, especially since he has not gained his position in a natural way.
In heaven. Send hither to see. hamlet to claudius Additionally, one might argue that since Claudius is referring to Polonius’s remains while Hamlet is talking about the dead man’s spirit, there is an essential difference between the two characters regarding what they deem most important.The king is concerned about a corpse, which can be interpreted as being materialistic. The prince, on the other hand, pays attention to the soul, or the spiritual.In heaven. Send hither to see. If your messenger find him not there, seek him i’ th’ other place yourself. But if indeed you find him not within this month, you shall nose him as you go up the stairs into the lobby.———-In heaven. Send a messager there if you want to be sure. If your messenger can’t find him, you can check hell yourself. But seriously, if you don’t find him within the next month, you’ll be sure to smell him as you go upstairs into the main hall.
Which we do tender as we dearly grieveFor that which thou hast done—must send thee henceWith fiery quickness. claudius to hamlet Hamlet, I care for you just as much as I grieve for Polonius. For your own protection, I must send you to England at once. So get ready to leave. Therefore prepare thyself.The bark is ready and the wind at help,Th’ associates tend, and everything is bentFor England.—————The ship is set to sail, the wind is favorable, your servants are waiting for you—everything is ready for you to go to England.
how does hamlet to respond to claudius telling him he is going to england HAMLETFor England!KING CLAUDIUSAy, Hamlet.HAMLETGood.–Hamlet already knows Claudius is sending him to England (see previous scene). He is faking surprise here, or just mocking Claudius.
claudius says that it is good he is sending hamlet to england if he knew their purpose. what is claudius’ purpose Claudius’s “purposes” are to have the King of England execute Hamlet on his arrival.This is an apparent slip or warning on Claudius’s part, hinting at his ill intentions towards Hamlet. Claudius may be too drunk or infuriated to think clearly, or may simply be overconfident in his power.If we credit Hamlet’s later account of the events aboard ship that led to his discovery of Claudius’s plot, the Prince is not yet fully or consciously aware of the king’s “purposes.” However, his retort indicates that he smells a rat.
I see a cherub that sees them. ham to claudius -i know an angel that can see all of your thoughts [referring to claudius saying has good reason to send him to england] Hamlet may be referring to the spirit of his father, who technically is in purgatory, not heaven yet.Regardless, he’s hinting that he suspects Claudius’s ill intentions.
when ham leaves for england he says goodbye to claudius by saying “farewell, dear mother”, why? Hamlet is calling Claudius his mother and explaining this usage by saying that man and wife are one flesh; and as he is married to Hamlet’s mother, so he is of one flesh with her, and hence he is Hamlet’s mother.Hamlet is in a manically playful state; his choice of joke may reflect his terrible ambivalence [mixed feelings towards sb] towards his mother, or may be intended merely to insult Claudius’ manhood and ridicule the supposed closeness of their relationship.
Tempt him with speed aboard.Delay it not. I’ll have him hence tonight. claudius to r+g CLAUDIUSFollow him on foot, and get him on board as quickly as possible. Don’t waste any time. I want him out of here tonight. Go now; everything else is ready. Please hurry.
if my love thou hold’st at aught—As my great power thereof may give thee sense, claudius to himself if you care about me at all—and you should, since you can still feel the damage that Denmark has done to you in the past and, so, fear and respect usIn a rhetorical apostrophe, Claudius addresses the King of England, saying that if he respects his command-which he should given the power of Claudius’s army-he will do what Claudius asks.
Since yet thy cicatrice looks raw and redAfter the Danish sword and thy free awe claudius to himself if you care about me at all—and you should, since you can still feel the damage that Denmark has done to you in the past and, so, fear and respect usSince you were recently beaten by the Danes and now pay a tribute that was called the Danegeld.cicatrice – scar of healed wound
Pays homage to us—thou mayst not coldly setOur sovereign process, which imports at full,By letters congruing to that effect, claudius to himself if you care about me at all—and you should, since you can still feel the damage that Denmark has done to you in the past and, so, fear and respect us————————–Our sovereign process-As the English monarch is subservient [prepared to obey w/out question, less imporatn] to the Dane, this king cannot ignore Claudius’ request (his “sovereign process”) that Hamlet be put to death.
Till I know ’tis done,Howe’er my haps, my joys were ne’er begun. claudius to himself since he’s raging like a fever in my brain, and you must cure me. Until I know it’s been done, I’ll never be happy, no matter how much luck I have.
notice how hamlet says : come, for england many times
how does king of england know to kill hamlet -letters that claudius sends
For like the hectic in my blood he rages,And thou must cure me. claudius to himself Here Claudius identifies Hamlet with the crisis within his own conscience, the one that brought him (with much effort) to his knees to pray in the previous act.In that scene, Claudius is unable to truly pray, and so is unable to ease his conscience (the ‘hectic in his blood’). Likewise, coming upon Claudius seemingly knelt in prayer, Hamlet keeps from killing him.—referring to diseases again w/ cure
http://www.rbge.org.uk/assets/images/gardens/edinburgh/Garden_Features/Yew%20hedge/Map%20name%20size.jpg hamlet is in denmark, fortinbras is from norway and wanted to invade denmark but was allowed to pass through denmakr and invade poland instead hamlet is being sent to england (lower part of uk)
If that his majesty would aught with us,We shall express our duty in his eye,And let him know so. fortinbras to captain when crossing over denmark to invade poland If His Majesty wants us to do any favor for him, tell him his wish is my command.————Fortinbras’s courteous exchange with the Captain perhaps sets up Hamlet’s characterization of him (below) as a “delicate and tender prince.”
That hath in it no profit but the name.To pay five ducats, five, I would not farm it. captain to hamlet about norway invading poland I myself wouldn’t pay five ducats for it, if someone offered it to me to farm. ————ham says that then poland will def not defend it but the captain says that they are already defending it: Shakespeare presents in this scene an intriguing juxtaposition between the mass of common men and the singular strangeness of a man like Hamlet. Most men do not think much and are happy to be slaves to greater men; but Hamlet cannot take orders from anything or anyone, including the ghost of his dead father and even himself. His mind is too rare and precious a substance to lie enthralled to any mandate or “trick of fame”.
That inward breaks and shows no cause withoutWhy the man dies. hamlet to himself (while the captain is there) This quarrel is like an abcess that grows inside someone until it bursts and kills them, and no one knows why.————————-Two thousand souls and twenty thousand ducatsWill not debate the question of this straw.This is th’ impostume of much wealth and peace,That inward breaks and shows no cause withoutWhy the man dies.—I humbly thank you, sir.———————–Even two thousand men and twenty-thousand ducats are just the beginning of what it will cost to settle this pointless matter. This is what happens when countries have too much money and peace. This quarrel is like an abcess that grows inside someone until it bursts and kills them, and no one knows why. (to the CAPTAIN) Thank you very much for the information, sir.
What is a manIf his chief good and market of his timeBe but to sleep and feed? A beast, no more. hamlet to himself after seeing denmark to invade poland What is a human being if he just eats and sleeps? Nothing more than a beast.
Sure, he that made us with such large discourse,Looking before and after, gave us notThat capability and godlike reasonTo fust in us unused. hamlet to himself after seeing denmark to invade poland God didn’t create us with such a huge power of thought and a divine capacity for reason in order for us not to use them. ————By “fust in us unused”, Hamlet means that it doesn’t make sense for someone to think continuously without translating that thought to action, which is the very malady he suffers from. He is impressed by the army marching to their deaths pointlessly because they see so easily to act boldly.Fust=become moldy through disuse
Sith I have cause and will and strength and meansTo do ‘t. Examples gross as earth exhort me. hamlet to himself after seeing denmark to invade poland I have the motivation, the willpower, the ability, and the means to do it. It’s as plain as the ground beneath my feet that I must do it.
Whose spirit with divine ambition puffedMakes mouths at the invisible event,Exposing what is mortal and unsureTo all that fortune, death, and danger dare,Even for an eggshell. hamlet to himself after seeing denmark to invade poland Look at this massive army led by a delicate and tender prince who’s so puffed up with divine ambition that he puts his fragile life at risk, exposing it to danger and death, for a reason as thin as an eggshell. –fortinbras risk lives for sth of no material value Consider: If greatness means not stirring without great argument, but being being greatly able to find argument when honor is at stake, does Fortinbras represent greatness?Just above, Hamlet calls this military action “the imposthume of much wealth and peace” (that is, an infected abscess), and yet here seems to perhaps be holding it up as a model of ideal action.
Whereon the numbers cannot try the cause,Which is not tomb enough and continentTo hide the slain? hamlet to himself after seeing denmark to invade poland Meanwhile, to my shame, I watch twenty thousand men go marching to their deaths for an illusion and a little bit of fame, fighting for a tiny piece of land not even big enough to bury them all. F
As Hamlet questions the Captain about the advancing army, he speaks in the courteous, gentlemanly mode that seems to come easily to him when he is not feigning madness or negotiating the tense world of Elsinore. He is perhaps especially “princely” in his manners when dealing with a commoner; we can see why he is a favorite of the people. -when ham sees norway’s army
ROSENCRANTZWilt please you go, my lord?HAMLETI’ll be with you straight; go a little before. With this single line Shakespeare re-establishes that Hamlet, too, is headed somewhere: to England, by order of Claudius. We know that he, like the soldiers he’s watching, is supposed to be on his way to a grim fate. Unlike the soldiers he’s watching, he’s able to take some control over that fate even if he’s ultimately subject to larger forces.————–Hamlet, here and as always, is of no mind to be controlled by anyone, least of all his former school friends whom he trusts “as adders fanged.”
I do not knowWhy yet I live to say ‘This thing’s to do;’ don’t know why I’m still alive to say “I have to do this deed” rather than having done it already. Hamlet expresses uncertainty over what the source of his delay is. Whether it is the “oblivion” of mere engagement in the bestial pastimes of eating and sleeping, or else an excess of conscience (that is mostly cowardice rather than wisdom), he cannot tell what it is that explains his procrastination. Perhaps he’s just a writer.(He’s unaware that he’s the protagonist in a tragedy, and therefore bound to fret about the stage for the entertainment of the audience, in order to hold up a mirror for them.)
what is fortinbras role in the play This line clearly sets up Prince Fortinbras as a foil for Prince Hamlet. Whether Fortinbras is really “delicate and tender” or not, Hamlet seems to admire and envy him.Harold Bloom has characterized Fortinbras as “another great royal basher of heads” in the mold of Hamlet Senior, and sees a deep irony in Fortinbras’s judgment (at the end of the play) that Prince Hamlet would have followed that example if he’d lived.
what does hamlet beleive greatness is -greatness lies even if you’re fighting for a worthless cause, so long as you honor it and have a reason for that worthless cause —One achieves greatness not by fighting only when the cause is important, but by making a fight out of nothing when honour is on the line.
How stand I then,That have a father kill’d, a mother stain’d,Excitements of my reason and my blood,And let all sleep? while, to my shame, Shame is caused by negative attention from others; guilt is caused by one’s own self-recrimination. Interesting, then, that Hamlet speaks of his shame rather than guilt here, since no one around him knows what he had vowed to do (except for Horatio, who is back in Elsinore and is hardly the type to shame Hamlet in any case).If shame requires an audience, is Hamlet’s shame caused by us, the audience? Perhaps this is another instance of the way in which Shakespeare, to paraphrase Harold Bloom, convinces us that Hamlet is a real person trapped inside a play (he has “that within which passeth show”).
That, for a fantasy and trick of fame, Fantasy and fame: the very things to which Hamlet is largely immune. He cannot deceive himself with fantasy, thinking too precisely on events to see reality falsely, and he is not lured by any trick of fame, since he could well be king if he wanted but doesn’t seem to have a real desire for it.The “fantasy” Hamlet’s talking about is the nonsensical cause the soldiers are fighting for; the “trick of fame” is the illusion of military glory.
O, from this time forth,My thoughts be bloody, or be nothing worth! A bold statement, except if you remember that Hamlet says essentially the same thing in Act 1 Scene 5, after the Ghost leaves him with the injunction to “Remember me!”

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