Gremillion Macbeth dramatic and literary elements (powerpoint)

Aside a short comment or speech that a character delivers directly to the audience or to himself that other actors on the stage cannot hearCharacters often comment on the events of the play.An aside could also reveal a character’s private opinions and reactions.
Dramatis Personae (Latin): the characters or actors in a drama; a list of the characters or actors in a drama
Foil : in fiction, a character who contrasts another character (usually the protagonist) to highlight particular qualities of the other characterExample: Banquo is a foil to Macbeth. Banquo’s cautionary response to the Weird Sisters’ prophecies contrasts Macbeth’s readiness to believe their prophecies.
Monologue a long speech by one character in a drama delivered to an audience (of other characters on the stage or the actual audience)Monologues allow characters to express thoughts and ideas at great length aloud.
Soliloquy a lengthy speech delivered privately by a character that reveals the figure’s innermost thoughts and feelingsSoliloquys usually develop a character.Soliloquys are introspective and complex.Example: Macbeth delivers a soliloquy when questioning whether or not he should murder King Duncan
Alliteration the frequent recurrence of the same initial letter or soundExample: “Fair is foul, and foul is fair.”
Allusion : a brief and indirect reference to a person, place, thing, or idea of historical cultural, literary, or political significanceExample: Macduff describes the death of King Duncan as a Gorgon-like sight. Macduff alludes to the Gorgon from Greek Mythology- one of three wicked, hideous sisters who could turn any onlooker into stone. The allusion emphasizes the horror of finding Duncan’s corpse; the scene has traumatized Macduff.
Antithesis meaning opposite, a rhetorical device in which two opposite ideas are put together in a sentence to achieve a contrasting effectYou can also describe characters, situations, or events as antithetical.Example: “Look like the innocent flower. / But be the serpent under ‘it.”This metaphor emphasizes the antithetical relationship between innocence and evil. Macbeth must outwardly act above suspicion but be secretly devilish.
Apostrophe a figure of speech in which a person directly addresses someone or something that isn’t present, such as an abstract concept, person, place, or thingExample: “Come, thick night, / And pall thee in the dunnest smoke of hell.”Lady Macbeth calls upon the night to hide her criminal actions.
Assonance the repetition of vowel sounds to create internal rhyming within phrases or clausesExample: “Double, double toil and trouble; / Fire burn and cauldron bubble.”
Chiasmus a rhetorical device in which two or more clauses are balanced against each other by the reversal of their structuresExample: “It is not the earth that makes us believe the man, but the man the oath.”
Antimetabole a rhetorical device in which the exact same words are repeated and reversed in a sentenceExample: “Fair is foul, and foul is fair.”
Couplet two successive rhyming lines of verse that share the same meter and form a complete thought; A couplet draws attention to the spoken words or adds emphasis.Example: “Go pronounce his present death, / And with his former title greet Macbeth.”
Diction : a style of writing determined by the choice of words of the writer; common descriptors include “informal,” “formal,” and “colloquial” diction Compare the following lines:”Is this a daggar which I see before me, / The handle toward my hand? Come, let me cluth thee. / I have thee not, and yet I see thee still.””I have done the deed…. / Didst thou not hear a noise?… / When? As I descended?”The first example has formal, sophisticated, expressive diction. The latter is a hurried, rapid-fire exchange of informal diction. This drastic difference emphasizes Macbeth’s deteriorating mental state.
Euphemism a figure of speech by which a harsh or offensive idea is stated in an inoffensive mannerExample: “He that’s coming / Must be provided for: and you shall put / This night’s great business into my dispatch.” Must be provided for is Lady Macbeth’s way of saying Duncan will get the axe while this night’s great business refers to the “business” of murdering Duncan.
Foreshadowing an advance hint of what is to come later in the storyForeshadowing may be in dialogue, events, actions, images, omens, etc.Example: “There’s husbandry in heaven; / Their candles are all out.” On the night of Duncan’s murder, Banquo realizes the skies are void of stars, rendering the world unnaturally dark. This shroud of darkness foreshadows the bloody deeds to come.
Hyperbole a figure of speech in which things are represented as being greater than what they are; a highly implausible, exaggerated statementExample: “Will all great Neptune’s ocean wash this blood / Clean from my hand? / No, this hand will rather. The multitudinous seas incarnadine, / Making the green one red.” Macbeth claims there’s a near-infinite amount of blood on his hands. This hyperbolic statement reveals the magnitude of his guilt.
iambic pentameter a line of verse with 5 metrical feet of iambs and thus 10 syllables
Iamb : a metrical foot with one unstressed ( u ) and one stressed ( / ) syllableIambs mimic the natural rhythm of the English language, a heartbeat, or a galloping horse.
Blank Verse : unrhymed iambic pentameterIn Shakespeare’s work, noble figures typically speak in blank verse.Example: u / u / u / u / u / But here, upon this bank and shoal of time, u / u / u / u / u /u We’d jump the life to come. But in these cases…
Imagery descriptive language that represents objects, actions and ideas in such a way that appeals to our physical senses (visual imagery, auditory imagery, olfactory or scent imagery, kinesthetic or movement imagery, thermal or hot/cold imagery, gustatory or taste imagery, and tactile or touch imagery)Example: “Will all great Neptune’s ocean wash this blood / clean from my hand? No; this my hand will rather / The multitudinous seas incarnadine, / Making the green one red.”This hyperbolic statement includes visual imagery. The vibrant color red coupled with the vastness of the ocean expresses the intensity and magnitude of Macbeth’s guilt.
Irony may be comical, bitter, tragic, or unbearably offensive
Dramatic Irony when the audience knows something that a character does notExample: Duncan’s fatal entrance to Inverness is unbeknownst to him.
Verbal Irony : when the opposite of what is meant is said
Situational Irony when the opposite of what is expected or anticipated happens
Juxtaposition when two or more ideas, places, characters,, or actions are placed side-by-side in a narrative or poem for the purpose of developing comparisons and contrastsExample: Scenes 4 and 5 of Act 1 juxtapose Duncan’s castle with Macbeth’s.
Metaphor a figure of speech that makes an implicit, implied, or hidden comparison between two unrelated things that share some common characteristics
Extended Metaphor a metaphor that develops the subject at length, highlighting comparisons in an intense, complex manner”Doubtful it stood, / As two spent swimmers, that do cling together / And choke their art.” The captain elaborates on the image of the swimmers to describe the state of the battle between the Scottish and rebel forces.
Mixed Metaphor when the initial comparison is followed by an inconsistent second comparison”Was the hope drunk / Wherein you dressed yourself? Hath it slept since? / And wakes it now, to look so green and pale / At what it did so freely.” Hope is first compared to some sort of elixir that can be consumed and then later compared to some dormant creature that needs waking.
Implied (or submerged) metaphor one term is implied rather than explicitly stated”I have no spur / To prick the sides of my intent, but only / Vaulting ambition, which o’erleaps itself / And falls on th’ other.” The spur represents impetus or cause although this isn’t explicitly stated.
Metonymy a figure of speech that replaces the name of a thing with the name of something else with which it is closely associatedThe pen is mightier than the sword. Pen refers to the written word while the sword refers to military action. The Oval Office was busy at work. The Oval Office represents the workers and staff of the United States presidential branch”That I may pour my spirits in thine ear, / And chastise… / All that impedes thee from the golden round.” The golden round represents the position of sovereign.
Synecdoche a figure of speech in which a part of something represents the wholeWe took his wheels to the movie theater. Wheels represents the entire car.We need all hands on deck. Hands refers to helpers or volunteers.
Omens an event regarded as a portent (warning/sign) of good or evil to comeExample: “The raven himself is hoarse / That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan / Under my battlements.” Ravens are omens or harbingers of death.
Paradox a statement that appears to be self-contradictory but includes a latent truth; used to illustrate an opinionExample: “So foul and fair a day I have not seen.”
Personification a figure of speech in which a thing (such as an idea or animal) is given human attributes; non-human objects are portrayed in a human like mannerExample: “My gashes cry for help.”
Simile : a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two different things using the words like or asExample: “And pity, like a naked newborn babe, / Striding the blast … / Shall blow the horrid deed in ever eye.”
Tone the attitude of a writer or speaker towards a subject; in fiction, the author’s tone is manifested through the charactersExample: “What beast was’t, then, / That made you break this enterprise to me? / When you durst do it, then you were a man; / And, to be more than what you were, you would / Be so much more the man.”Lady Macbeth first addresses her husband in disbelief, but she quickly adopts an aggressive, belittling tone.

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