English (romeo and juliet vocab terms)

act -major division in a work of drama -usually 5 in shakespeare plays-there are 5 acts in Romeo and Juliet
allusion -an indirect reference-example: (act 2 scene 2) Juliet says, “Else would I tear the cave where Echo lies, And make her airy tongue more hoarse than mine With repetition of my Romeo’s name.” (Echo is a goddess who repeated everything that was said)
antagonist -person or force that works against the main character-example: Tybalt
antithesis -a rhetorical device in which two opposite ideas are put together in a sentence to achieve a contrasting effect-Romeo: “O brawling love, O loving hate!”
apostrophe -a figure of speech addressing someone or something which is not present, often marked by the word “O”-example: (Juliet) “O Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou Romeo?”
aside -a line delivered directly to the audience-in the balcony scene when Juliet is expressing all of her feelings and Romeo says to himself and to the audience, “Shall I hear more, or shall I speak at this?”
blank verse -unrhymed iambic pentameter -this is the form that most of Romeo and Juliet, the play, is written in-most of the upper class characters talk in this
chorus -an actor or a group of actors who deliver a speech on stage (in the prologues)-first reference to the “star-crossed lovers”
confidate -a trusted friend of the main character with whom the main character shares their innermost thoughts and feelings-Juliet’s is the nurse
dialogue -a conversation between two or more characters
direct characterization -when the narrator described the character’s personality to the reader-example: (act 2 scene 4) Romeo says, “A gentleman Nurse, that loves to hear himself talk, and will speak more in a minute than he will stand to in a month.” (Romeo is speaking to the nurse about Mercutio)
dramatic irony a discrepancy between what is known and what is true-occurs when an audience knows something that a character in literature does not know -expressed through words and actions-example: The nurse is not being clear on who died and Juliet assumes that Romeo is dead, when really Tybalt is the one the nurse is referring to. (3.2.31-70) -^^^we know that it is Tybalt dead and not Romeo, but Juliet does not know that
dynamic character -a character who changes over the course of the novel (personality, morals, outlook, etc.)-Juliet’s father (with Juliet’s marriage with Paris)
flat character -a character with only one side to his or her personality-nurse: comic relief and outspoken-benvolio: peacemaker, loyal, and temperate
foil character -a character whose qualities or actions serve to emphasize those of the protagonist or some other character by providing contrast-Mercutio to Romeo (their outlook on love)
foreshadowing -giving hints or clues of what is to come later in the story-example: (Prince; in act 1 scene 1) “Your lives shall pay the forfeit of the peace.”
indirect charcterization -occurs when the author reveals the character’s personality traits through what the character does, what the character says, or what others in the story say about the character-there are many examples, but one is when Friar Lawrence says he will marry Romeo and Juliet to end the fued (this indirectly shows us that he is kind and compassionate)
monologue a long speech delivered on stage by a single character
motif a reoccurring image, symbol, or theme in literature (death, flowers, sun, moon, and stars)
oxymoron -when two opposites are juxtapose; must be in a single phrase-O happy dagger (Juliet)
prologue -an introduction in a work of literature-in drama it takes the form of a speech-only at beginning of scene 1 and scene 2
protagonist the main character who guides the action within a novel
prose ordinary speech not poetry-lower class characters and comic relief use this
pun -a joke exploiting the different possible meanings of a word-shakespeare uses these to being humor-mercutio tells a lot of puns-example: Give me a torch. I am not for this ambling.Being but heavy, I will bear the light. (Romeo)(the play on words with ‘light’ and ‘heavy’)
round character a complex character with many sides to his or her personality
rhymed couplets every 2 lines rhyme (Romeo and Juliet speak in this majority of the time) (the last two lines of the play)
scene a minor division in a work of drama-scenes change when the characters or location change usually
situational irony a discrepancy between what is expected and what actually happens; don’t get this confused with something that is just unfortunate -expressed through actions only-Lord Capulet tells Paris that he will plan for Juliet to marry him on Thursday. (3.4.1-35) -^^this is totally unexpected because like just a few minutes ago he wanted Juliet to love whom ever she wants
soliloquy -a special type of monologue in which a character speaks directly to the audience revealing his or her inner thoughts and feelings-example: in act 2 scene 2 when Romeo is describing Juliet to us as she is on her balcony. He gets real deep in his feelings.
sonnet generally deal with the theme of love-written in iambic pentameter-14 lines long-sometimes Romeo and Juliet talk in sonnet form
static character a character who stays the same throughout the novel
tragedy a story in which a tragic hero if brought down by an error in judgement or a fatal mistake
verbal irony -a discrepancy between what is said and what is meant-occurs when a character says one thing and means something else-**don’t get this confused with sarcasm-expressed through words only-example: “Ay, ay, a scratch, a scratch, marry, ’tis enough. Where is my page? Go, villain, fetch a surgeon.” (Mercutio; 3.1.85-86)-^because he says “hey don’t worry it is just a scratch, but he really means hurry I am dying.”

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