English 9 Romeo and Juliet Vocab

alliteration- repetition of beginning sounds in 2 or more neighboring words. Writers use this to emphasize words, imitate sounds, or create musical effects. EXAMPLES: Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.
allusion- a reference in writing or speech to some piece of knowledge (often a literary work) not specifically named. If a title is specifically cited it is a direct reference not an allusion. EXAMPLE: “follow the yellow brick road” refers to The Wizard of Oz
dramatic monologue- a type of poem that uses first person, but the poem’s speaker has a personality that is not of the poet in real life.
exact rhyme- words in which vowels and ending consonants rhyme. It is a perfect rhyme not a slant or off rhyme. EXAMPLE: light/sight and bird/word
flashback- something that interrupts the chronological flow of work. In a play, it can be an episode, conversation, or event that happened before a main action. In fiction, it can refer to a narrator’s memory of something that happened a long time ago, or readers can read about events that took place earlier.
foreshadowing- in a drama or fiction this is a hint dropped by the author about what is to come later. In Romeo and Juliet several characters mention graves and tombs, which prepares the audience for the plays final action taking place in the burial vault.
free verse- verse without regular meter or rhyme. Walt Whitman’s “I can hear America singing” is an example. Such verses are often held together by repetition or a pattern. At times an identifiable pattern is indicated to the reader’s eye by breaks between verse lines
hyperbole- figure of speech involving exaggeration. EXAMPLE: The limo was as big as Ohio.
iambic- type of rhythm with even numbered syllables (2, 4, and so on) accented. It usually describes poetry since this rhythm is natural to English. If you count syllables in a line and even numbered syllables tend to be stressed then the language is iambic. EXAMPLE: Whose woods these are I think I know/His house is in the village though.
iambic pentameter- a line that is 10 syllables long, accents (emphasis) on every even numbered syllable (2,4, and so on). Iambic refers to the line in rhythm. pentameter means 10 syllables. EXAMPLE: From Romeo and Juliet “And to soon marred are those so early made”
imagery- words or phrases that appeal to one or more of the 5 senses. An image is created by the author’s words to enable the reader to see, touch, taste, hear, smell, or something else. An image can be a simile or a metaphor.
irony- use of words to mean something different from what appears on the surface to mean, or when the meaning or significance of an event or statement is the opposite of what we might ordinarily expect.
metaphor- a figure of speech in which one thing is spoken as if it were something else. It is like a simile in comparing two normally unlike things but states the comparison without as or like. EXAMPLE: You are the salt of the earth (Matthew 5:13)
meter- repetition of a regular rhythmic unit in a line of poetry. It is the pattern of stresses in a line. The first word identifies where the accents go, the second word how many feet are in each line or verse. Each unit of is a foot involving stressed and unstressed syllables.
monologue- a relatively long speech or composition giving the words of one speaker. In a drama, this is heard by other characters (in contrast to a solioquy where it is spoken with no other characters on stage).
paradox- a statement that seems contradictory but true. It describes a situation where opposites work together. EXAMPLE: Sometimes less is more.
personification- a type of figurative speech a nonhuman subject is given human characteristics. EXAMPLE: Sorrow knocked at my door.
poetry- literature that is characterized by rhythm or musical qualities of language, the sound of words being as important as the words denotations or dictionary meanings. Poems have a pleasing sound (not a quality readers expect in prose). Rhyme and regular rhythm are often used to create pleasing sounds, but not all poems have rhyme or regular rhythm. In free verse rhythm comes from other devices.
rhyme scheme- a regular pattern of rhyming words in a poem or song. The rhyme scheme is indicated by using different letters from the alphabet for each new rhyme. Shakespere’s sonnets which have 3 quatrains and a couplet, have this ______: abab for the 1st quatrain (lines 1-4), cdcd for the 2nd quatrain (lines 5-8), and efef for the 3rd quatrain (lines 9-12), and gg for the ending couplet (lines 13-14)
simile- a figure of speech comparing 2 unlike things using words like or as. EXAMPLE: Last night I slept like a log.
soliloquy- a speech by a play’s character to himself or herself when alone. The speech is not intended for a paticular listener.
sonnet- a lyric poem of 14 lines, 10 syllables per line. is often defined as 14 lines of iambic pentameter. However poets vary rhythm for the sake of variety so not all sonnets are iambic. Rhyme usually follows one or 2 patterns.
stanza- lines of verse set off by other groups by space. Two lines is a couplet; 3 lines is a tercet; 4 lines is a quatrain; 5 lines is a cinquain; 6 lines is a senset; 7 lines is a septset; 8 lines octet.
symbol- a person, place, activity, or object that stands for something beyond itself. Simple symbols include the bald eagle as the symbol of the US. The candle that burns in first fig symbolizes a fast life and action packed lifestyle (the candle will not last long the person will not last long). Symbols in many literary works are complex, have more than one meaning, and allow for different interpretations.
tetrameter- a line of verse with 4 (tetra) feet, which means 8 syllables. EXAMPLE: Whose woods these are I think I know
theme- a central idea or message in an artistic work. Whereas plot is about work’s sequence of events or actions, these are more about meaning. Honesty is a ____ of the Joy Luck Club.
tone- a feeling in a literary work stemming from a writer’s attitude towards a subject. may change in long or complex works. A writer’s attitude is conveyed through word choice punctuation, theme, and other devices. These attuitudes may include anger, nostalgia, ect.
tragedy- a drama in which a protagonist (often a person who is important in addition to being a central character) meets with disaster or dies because of some personal fault or unavoidable circumstances. Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy though untypical due to the play’s many comical passages. Hamlet is more typical. NOTE: Works of fiction are not characterized as tragedies though some include tragic elements.
trimeter- a 3 foot line in verse which means 6 syllables. The opening lines in Emily Dickinson’s I never saw a moor are a trimeter “I never saw a moor, I never saw a sea. “
third-person narration- refers to the using of pronouns he, she, it, and they.
drama- an unexpected and emotional series of events

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