Shild Beowulf opens as a tribute to whose memory?
pessimistic Anglo-Saxons were rather ______ in their mood
England Beowulf is the national epic for what country?
mead hall After the hunt/battle, where would followers of the king or chieftain meet?
athelings What was a term for Anglo-Saxon nobles?
scop What was the term for Anglo-Saxon poets?
gleeman What was the term for Anglo-Saxon singers?
riddles For Anglo-Saxons, what were seen as intellectual exercises?
folkmoots What was the term for Anglo-Saxon town meetings?
Archbishop of Canterbury Who has always been the leading churchman of England?
orally How were memories and stories passed on by Anglo-Saxons?
swinging; four The typical line of verse had a _____ rhythm with how many beats?
King Alfred of Wessex Who united England?
folk Beowulf is a ____ epic which embodies the basic values and noblest aspirations of the cultures of the audience for which it was writen.
1st; monk Beowulf is the ____ great work of English literature; composed in England, perhaps by a ____, probably in the 8th century (700) AD. The earliest manuscript of Beowulf dates from the 10th century AD and is now preserved in the British Museum.
oral; bard A folk epic derived from the ____ tradition, Beowulf was sung from castle to castle by a ___ called a “scop”.
creator What does the word “scop” literally mean?
maker The word “poet” derives from the Greek word meaning what?
3,000 Ultimately, Beowulf was written down and is over how many lines long?
inconsistencies In places in Beowulf, there are ____ because of the number of authors who contributed to the story. The unknown author(s) was obviously refined, Christian, and possibly familiar with Homer or Vergil.
pagan There are a number of Christian elements in the epic but the story itself and all its persons are purely ____.
destiny; fates It is the pagan divinity Wyrd, or ____, which shapes the ____ of the characters. Other pagan aspects of the story are omens and blood revenge
courage Important Anglo-Saxon qualities of _____, loyalty, and generosity are included in Beowulf.
good; evil It is the poem’s moral intention to focus on the theme of ____ and ____.
God is on the side of good What Christian message is in Beowulf?
Fame after death is the noblest of goals What Anglo-Saxon message is in Beowulf?
violent; uncertain The tone of Beowulf is pessimistic and grim; the world is ____; life is ____ while death is certain.
kenning a literary device in which a noun is renamed in a creative way using a compound word or union of two separate words to combine ideas
alliteration a figure of speech in which consonants, especially at the beginning of words, or stressed syllables, are repeated. In [Old English] poetry, it was a continual and essential part of the metrical scheme and until the late Middle Ages was often used thus.
Caesura a break/pause in a line of poetry, dictated, usually, by the natural rhythm of the language. In [Old English] verse this was used to indicate the half life. Means “a cutting” in Latin.
Kenning this term derives from the use of the old Norse verb meaning ‘to know, recognize’. A device for introducing descriptive color or for suggesting associations without distracting attention from the essential statement.
helmberend Term for warrior (derived from a kenning)
beadoleoma term for flashing sword (derived from a kenning)
swansrad term for sea (derived from a kenning)
poem; position; adventures; heroic; nation; race An epic is a long, narrative ____ in elevated style presenting characters of high ___ in _____ forming an organic whole through their relation to a central ____ figure and through their development of episodes important to the history of a _____ or a ____.
folk Epics without certain authorship are called ____ epics.
stature; historical; legendary One characteristic of an epic is that the hero is a figure of imposing ____, or national or international importance, and of great _____ or ______ significance.
setting; world A characteristic of an epic is that the ____ is vast, covering great nations, the ____, or the universe.
courage A characteristic of an epic is that the action consists of deeds of great valor or requiring superhuman ______.
gods; angels; demons A characteristic of an epic is that supernatural forces — ____, ____, and ____ — interest themselves in the action.
style A characteristic of an epic is that a ____ of sustained elevation is used.
objectivity A characteristic of an epic is that the poet retains a measure of _______.
theme A common device of an epic is that the poet opens by stating the ____.
muse A common device of an epic is that the poet invokes a ____ for inspiration.
middle A common device of an epic is that the poet begins the narrative “in medias res” – in the ___ of things – giving necessary exposition later.
warriors; ships; armies A common device of an epic is that the poet includes catalogs of ____, _____, and ____.
speeches A common device of an epic is that there are extended formal _______ by the main characters.
simile A common device of an epic is that the poet makes frequent use of the epic ___, an elaborated comparison.
449-1066 What years were the dates of the Anglo-Saxon period?
Runic What alphabet did the Anglo-Saxons use?
epic poem What is Beowulf’s genre?
Anglo-Saxon historically, this term refers to a group of Teutonic tribes who invaded England in the 5th and 6th centuries following the departure of Roman legions in 410 CE. These tribes came from northern Europe and gave their name to England, driving the native Celtic peoples into the farthet western and northern regions of Britain. This term also is used to refer to Old English, the language these people spoke.
Beot a ritualized boast or vow made publicly by Anglo-Saxon warriors known was thegns before the hlaford in a mead-hall the night before a military engagement. It was a positive sign of determination and character.
comitatus this term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons & other Germanic tribes in which group of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot. It was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one’s own lord.
heriot The gift of arms and armor an Anglo-Saxon chieftain or hlaford would give to his thegn, a warrior who vowed to serve him, to fight for him, and to avenge his master’s death. upon the thegn’s death, this would return to the hlaford.
hlaford name for a lord
thegn term for men who swore an oath of fealty to a lord
flyting contest of wits and insults between 2 Germanic warriors. Each tries to demonstrate his superior vocabulary, cleverness, and bravery.
hlaford an Anglo-Saxon warrior chieftain who was served by a number of loyal thegns.
hlafdig wife of the hlaford, responsible for overseeing communal provisions
mead hall structure built by an Anglo-Saxon lord as a social center for his immediate community. Made primarily of wood. Filled with benches, which were elaborately carved and decorated with gold. A lord would gather his warriors at this place to eat, drink, pass out gifts and treasure, and renew the oath-bonds between himself and his men.
litotes a type of meiosis in which the writer uses a statement in the negative to create the effect. Type of verbal irony. It is basically a huge understatement.
scop an old English poet. His art was directed mostly towards epic poetry, religious verse in epic format, heroic lays of battle, and stern meditations on mortality and transience of earthly glory. He recited/sang his verses, usually accompanying himself on a harp or similar stringed instrument
thegn a warrior who has sworn his loyalty to a lord in Anglo-Saxon society. In return for heriot, this person vows to fight for his lord and die in his service, and takes up the task of avenging his lord’s death.
wergild (or Wergeld) legal system of many Germanic tribes, including Anglo-Saxons. This tradition allowed an individual and his family to make amends for a crime by paying a fine to the family of another man whom he has killed/injured. The price varied depending upon the nature of the injury and the injured man’s status. If this could not or would not be payed, the injured family was considered within its traditional rights to kill a member of the culprit’s family of similar rank and status. This often led to blood feuds.
wyrd This is often translated as fate. It is an Anglo-Saxon term that embodies the concept of inevitability in Old English poetry. It appears to be linked to the past, implying that the past in unchangeable, and therefore the current circumstances in which a person finds himself are beyond his alteration.

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