APUSH chapters 11-something around 13ish

Manifest Destiny This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from “sea to sea,” from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Empressario spanish word for a land agent whose job was to bring in new settlers to an area
Steven Austin A young immigrant from Missouri who established the first legal American settlement in Texas in 1822. He was successful in recruiting immigrants to Texas.
Roman Catholic, Mexican Citizen prerequisites for becoming an empressario
Santa Anna Mexican dictator who was in charge when war broke out between the Mexicans and Americans. He lost Texas to rebels, and was the leader of the armed forces during the war.
San Antonio site of spanish military post; the location of The Alamo
Sam Houston United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863), First president of the Republic of Texas
San Jacinto the decisive battle of the Texas Revolution. Led by General Sam Houston fought on April 21, 1836, in present-day Harris County, Texas,
John C. Fremont commissioned by the Senate (especially Benton) to document and survey the west. His descriptions were to make the West look as nice as possible. His famous stories (e.g. Pathfinder) glorified the West and all the abundance of land and possible wealth
Zachary Taylor General that was a military leader in Mexican-American War and 12th president of the United States. Sent by president Polk to lead the American Army against Mexico at Rio Grande, but defeated.
Winfield Scott United States general who was a hero of the War of 1812 and who defeated Santa Anna in the Mexican War (1786-1866)
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
Polk 11th President of the United States; expansionist
election of 1844 Main debate over Texas. Whigs nominate Henry Clay and democrats nominate James Polk. Polk says he will annex Texas and Oregon to make both sides happy. Polk was elected
California, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico states gained by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo from Mexico to America
Gadsen Purchase strip of land in present day Arizona and New Mexico for which the United States paid Mexico $10 million in 1853.
Wilmot Proviso Dispute over whether any Mexican territory that America won during the Mexican War should be free or a slave territory; an amendment stating that any territory acquired from Mexico would be free. This amendment passed the House twice, but failed to ever pass in Senate.
The Compromise of 1850 Slavery becomes outlawed in Washington D.C., California is admitted as a free state, and Utah and New Mexico will determine whether slavery is allowed through popular sovereignty. Also, the Fugitive Slave Law is passed.
California ____is a free state (compromise of 1850)
slavery new territories are set up with no mention of ________. (compromise of 1850)
5 divides Texas territory into __ states. (compromise of 1850)
western claims the government assumes Texas debts if they give up _______ ______. (compromise of 1850)
D.C. slavery and slave trade is abolished in _._. (compromise of 1850)
fugitive slave laws stricter ________ _____ ____. (compromise of 1850).
domestic slave trade congress cannot interfere with ________ _____ _____. (compromise of 1850)
Daniel Webster 7th of march Speech
Nashville Convention meeting of representatives of nine southern states in the summer of 1850 to monitor the negotiations over the Compromise of 1850; it called for extension of the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific Ocean and a stronger Fugitive Slave Law. The convention accepted the Compromise but laid the groundwork for a southern confederacy in 1860-1861.
Stephen Douglass the well-known opponent of Abraham Lincoln in both a senatorial and a presidential election. He never became president “Little Giant”
54 40 or fight the slogan of the Polk campaign
Mexican war after disputes over Texas lands that were settled by Mexicans the United States declared war on Mexico in 1846 and by treaty in 1848 took Texas and California and Arizona and New Mexico and Nevada and Utah and part of Colorado and paid Mexico $15,000,000
Rio Grande, Nueces the two rivers that border dispute was between; America said _____, Mexico said ______.
Joint Resolution a resolution passed by both houses of Congress which becomes legally binding when signed by the chief executive (or passed over the executive’s veto)
Calhoun the southern leader in the mid to late 1800s
Clay the western leader in the mid to late 1800s
Lyceum a public hall for lectures and concerts
James Fennimore Cooper a prolific and popular American writer, He wrote many sea-stories, historical novels and Romantic Novels, “The last of the Mohicans” and “Leatherstocking Tales”
Massachusetts first state with public education
49th parallel the actual border of Oregon compromised on between Britain and the US
Horace Mann United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)
Liberty Party (Free Soil) 1840-14848/1848-1852; Grew out of split in abolitionist movement in late 1830s; Liberty party merged into the Free soil party in 1848; James Birney, John P. Hale, Martin Van Buren; Opposed the spread of slavery into territories; “Free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men”; Free homesteads; Repeal of Fugitive Slave Law; End slavery in Washington D.C. ; First political party to oppose spread of slavery into territories; Forerunners of the Republican parties of the 1850s; May have cost Henry Clay the 1844 election when Birney ran strong in NY
Hawthorne United States writer of novels and short stories mostly on moral theme, known for the Scarlet Letter
Beaumont United States surgeon remembered for his studies of digestion (1785-1853)
Melville United States writer of novels and short stories (1819-1891) best known for Moby Dick
Walt Whitman poet known for “leaves of grass”
Calhoun thought of the idea of a Dual Presidency
George Catlin created Native American portraits based on the Plains Indians. He thought that the Native American way of life was going to be extinct.
Gilbert Stuart Rhode Islander famous for his paintings of George Washington
Currier and Ives Two business partners who produced colored prints of everyday American life in the nineteenth century.
John Bull symbol representing Great Britain
Webster-Ashburn Treaty 1842. Solved border issues between the United States and the British. Maine-New Brunswick border, Lake Superior Border, 49th parallel western frontier. Ended the slave trade on the high seas. Share the great lakes.
Longfellow United States poet remembered for his long narrative poems (1807-1882) Hiawatha, The Tide Rises, The Tide Falls.
James Otis invented the elevator
pragmatism the attribute of accepting the facts of life and favoring practicality and literal truth as opposed to what is “right.”

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