AO1 The Tempest

Play begins in media res disorder (reinforced by entrances and exits)
‘On a ship at sea. A tempestuous noise of thunder and lightning’ Sense of realism; Shakespeare’s last solo play – spectacular opening
Boatswain: “Work you, then” • Imperative = inversion of Great Chain of Being (disorder)¤ Inverted syntax = foregrounds insult (Sebastian is noble)
Sebastian calls the Boatswain a “dog” “dog” = Low status (trying to re-establish hierarchy/superiority)
Boatswain: “What cares these roarers for the name of king?” • Onomatopoeic ‘roarers’ creates a sense of noise violence and danger; Boatswain makes clear unimportance of hierarchy in the face of the violent storm – disorder
“If by your art, my dearest father, you have/ Put the wild waters in this roar, allay them” (1) • storm = magic – ‘art’ (presents his magic as a skil/beautiful (white magic)• Prospero is the subject = active/powerful• ‘Put’ makes it seem effortless▪’wild waters’ presents nature as untameable▪’roar’ = violent, animalistic, onomatopoeic
“If by your art, my dearest father, you have/ Put the wild waters in this roar, allay them” (2) ‘dearest’ = close relationship (living on island alone for 12 years)
“allay them” imperative =(could suggest) Miranda as active and having agency, but female trait of compassion
“The ivy which had hid my princely trunk” • metaphor presents Antonio as parasitic
“The government I cast upon my brother” (1) neglects duties (against James’ ideas in True Law – ‘stranger’ rather than fatjer to his people); obsessed with magic
“The government I cast upon my brother” (3) • inverted syntax = foregrounds P.’s duties; he neglects them for his magic▪’cast’ suggests he has discarded his duties as unwanted + has connotations with magic
“The government I cast upon my brother” (4) ○ P is the subject = in part to blame- Antonio is object =(could suggest) duties as a burden
“Volumes that I prize above my dukedom” – present tense = still values magic over dukedom
“Approach my Ariel. Come!” – repeated imperatives show annoyance + dominance× possessive ‘my’ objectifies (foreshadows “thing”), but affectionate
“Is there more toil?” – question challenges P.’s role as master• he presents servitude as arduous
“If thou more murmur’st, I will rend an oak, / And peg thee in his knotty entrails, till / Thou hast howl’d away twelve winters.” – parallels Sycorax’s punishment of Ariel (even the no. of years although Prospero is more powerful as he can violently ‘rend’ an ‘oak’ – harder wood, associated with Zeus, king of the Greek gods)
“If thou more murmur’st, I will rend an oak, / And peg thee in his knotty entrails, till / Thou hast howl’d away twelve winters.” – onomatopoeia = pain and suffering • ‘winters’ rather than ‘years’ = more sinister (harsh time of year, associated with death)
“This island’s mine, by Sycorax my mother, / Which thou tak’st from me” (1) Caliban presents P. as a usurper and a thief (arguably a coloniser – Caliban is the other)
“This island’s mine, by Sycorax my mother, / Which thou tak’st from me” (2) – Present tense = Caliban still views himself as rightful ruler (by matriarchal inheritance)
“I loved thee” – human emotion (not entirely ‘savage’)
“here you sty me / In this hard rock” – ‘sty’ connotes entrapment (and is where pigs are kept)• ‘hard’ is unnecessary (‘hard rock’ is a tautology; creates sympathy for Caliban as a victim)
“I had peopled else / This isle with Calibans” C. does not deny attempted rape of Miranda – could be to gain power = political act (M. as political tool)• Reflects attitudes of the time (native people = base urges. i.e lust)
“I endow’d thy purposes with words” M. presented as gifting language to C.
“when thou … wouldst gabble” – onomatopoeic ‘gabble’ presents previous language as child-like and nonsense (reflects European attitudes to native peoples)
“a thing most brutish” ‘thing’ = dehumanising, reinforced by ‘brutish’ (‘brute’ = savagely violent animal)

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