Antigone Scavenger hunt

On which continent is Greece? Southeastern most region of Europe
How is Greece defined or surrounded on each side? A series of mountains, surrounded by water on all sides but the north, and countless large and small islands
How did its many deep bays and natural coastline harbors affect ancient Greeks? They developed a culture inspired by both foreign and indigenous sources, and they prospered in maritime commerce.
How did the mountains affect the political character of Greece? People lived in independent communities, isolated into city-states. They weren’t able to farm, so the Greeks had to look elsewhere for fertile soil.
Why was it important to Greeks to provide a proper burial for the dead? To dignify the dead
Who took most of the responsibility for preparing the dead for burial? Relatives of the deceased, primarily women
There were three parts of the customary burial rituals. Briefly describe each part. the prothesis (laying out of the body), the ekphora (funeral procession), and the interment of the body or cremated remains of the deceased. After being washed and anointed with oil, the body was dressed and placed on a high bed within the house. During the prothesis, relatives and friends came to mourn and pay their respects. Lamentation of the dead is featured in early Greek art at least as early as the Geometric period, when vases were decorated with scenes portraying the deceased surrounded by mourners. Following the prothesis, the deceased was brought to the cemetery in a procession, the ekphora, which usually took place just before dawn. Very few objects were actually placed in the grave, but monumental earth mounds, rectangular built tombs, and elaborate marble stelai and statues were often erected to mark the grave and to ensure that the deceased would not be forgotten. Immortality lay in the continued remembrance of the dead by the living. From depictions on white-ground lekythoi, we know that the women of Classical Athens made regular visits to the grave with offerings that included small cakes and libations.
The Greeks believe the psyche left the body at death. Where did they believe it would go? It left the body as a puff of wind; went to the Underworld/afterlife
Although the Greeks believe the psyche could be seen after death, could it be touched? No
Describe the appearance of the Sphinx. Head of a woman, wings of a griffin, body of a lion
Where was the Sphinx? On the road to Thebes
What problem did it pose for travelers? A riddle; they died if they answered incorrectly
What was the riddle given to Oedipus? “What walks on four legs in the morning, two legs at noon and three at close of day?”
What is the answer Oedipus gave for the riddle? A human; infant, prime life, old age
What was the aftermath of his answering correctly? Sphinx killed itself; Oedipus became King of Thebes
Who was Sophocles, and when did he live? Sophocles of Kol┼Źnos (c. 496 – c. 406 BCE) was one of the most famous and celebrated writers of tragedy plays in ancient Greece and his surviving works, written throughout the 5th century BCE, include such classics as Oedipus the King, Antigone, and Women of Trachis.
What title has been given to him, Aeschylus, and Euripides? Great Tragedians
In what was Sophocles involved outside of the theater and drama? Politics
In what way were Sophocles’ plays innovative? Added a third character
Why was this change so important? More complex and realistic plots
What was different about the language in Sophocles plays? More natural and rich language
Greek Tragedy (in ancient Greek theatre) a play in which the protagonist, usually a man of importance and outstanding personal qualities, falls to disaster through the combination of a personal failing and circumstances with which he cannot deal
Theatron Tiered seating area built into a hillside in the shape of a horseshoe
Orchestra Ground-level area where the chorus performed. It was in front of the proscenium.
Skene Building behind the stage. First used as a dressing area for actors (and sometimes an..entrance or exit area for actors), the skene eventually became a background showing appropriate scenery.
Parados Parode (or parados) – is a song sung by the chorus when it enters.
Chorus Chorus – Bystanders in a play who present odes on the action. A parode (or parados) is a song sung by the chorus when it enters. A stasimon is a song sung during the play, between episodes of action. The chorus generally had the following roles in the plays of Sophocles: (1) to explain the action, (2) To interpret the action in relation to the law of the state and the law of the Olympian gods, (3) to foreshadow the future, (4) to To serve as actor actor in the play, (5) To sing and/or dance, and (6) to give the author’s views. In some ways, the chorus is like the narrator of a modern film or like the background music accompanying the action of the film. In addition, it is like text on the film screen that provides background information or identifies the time and place of the action
Choragos Leader of the Chorus
Prologue (Prologos) – Introduction of a play that provides background material.
Episode a usually brief unit of action in a dramatic or literary work: such as the part of an ancient Greek tragedy between two choric songs
Ode Poem sung in a play or a festival
Exodos the final scene or departure, especially in tragedy and usually Old Comedy: usually following the last stasimon.
Catharsis In literature and art, a purification of emotions. The Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) used the term to describe the effect on the audience of a tragedy acted out on a theater stage. This effect consists in cleansing the audience of disturbing emotions, such as fear and pity, thereby releasing tension. This purgation occurs as a result of either of the following reactions: (1) Audience members resolve to avoid conflicts of the main character-for example, Oedipus in Oedipus Rex and Creon in Antigone-that arouse fear or pity or (2) audience members transfer their own pity and fear to the main character, thereby emptying themselves of these disquieting emotions. In either case, the audience members leave the theater as better persons intellectually, morally, or socially. They have either been cleansed of fear of pity or have vowed to avoid situations that arouse fear and pity. In modern usage, catharsis may refer to any experience, real or imagined, that purges a person of negative emotions.

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