Antigone Quizlet

Who are the dead brothers of Antigone and Ismene and how did they die? Polynieces and Eteocles take turns ruling Thebes, alternating years. When Polyneices’ year came, Eteocles refused to step down and banished Polyneices from the kingdom. Polyneices went to neighboring kingdom of Argos and returned with an army to fight against his brother for the throne. During the battle, the two engaged in hand to hand combat and slew each other.
What is Creon’s decree and what is the punishment if one does not obey this decree? Creon decrees that Eteocles receives a hero’s burial, but Polyneices’ body is not to be touched or buried and is to be left to rot on the battlefield for traitorous acts. Anyone who attempts to disobey will be stoned to death in a public square.
Who or what does the chorus represent in this play? They are the elders. Older, more experienced men who’s opinions should be respected and taken under advisement. They are representatives of citizens of Thebes.
What event is the chorus describing in the “Parados” and what is their opinion of Polyneices? The chorus details the events of the battles between Polyneices and Eteocles and the respective armies, including the death of the brothers. They indicate that Polyneices is a traitor to the kingdom because he brought the army against his own people. They also think that Polyneices is very arrogant.
What assumptions does the chorus make regarding the gods, particularly Zeus, in the “Parados”? The assume that the gods, particularly Zeus, interceded on behalf of Thebes and helped drive back Polyneices and his Argive army. This would indicate that the gods were on Thebes’ side;therefore, they must be right in their actions.
According to his first speech, what does Creon value above friendship? Creon claims to care more about public welfare than anything. In other words, anything done to endanger the kingdom will be punished regardless to the culprit’s relation to the king.
How does Creon justify his decision regarding Polyneices? He says that Polyneices brought the army against his own people, a traitorous act. Creon believes the traitor should be punished, not honored, as a hero like Eteocles. Therefore, Polyneices will receive no burial.
How does Creon’s tone change in his first speech from the beginning to the end? He begins with a conciliatory, grateful, understanding tone as he explains that he appreciates the loyalty of the people and knows that he must earn their respect. He makes promises to the people about commitment to the good of the kingdom. He then turns to his decree and begins to sound threatening and indignant, indicating anyone who disobeys him will suffer.
In Scene I, what does the Sentry bravely suggest might be causing the king so much distress? The Sentry says that it isn’t his voice or the news that bothers the king, but perhaps it is the king’s conscience that is giving him pause, indicating perhaps that the king is having second thoughts about his decree.
Explain the Sentry’s statement: “How dreadful it is when the right judge judges wrong?” Creon is the rightful king, as he is the only male heir left in the family. He has not come to the throne by force or in any unjust manner. The kingdom has been placed in his hands fairly. Unfortunately, being the right man for the job doesn’t mean he is going to make the right decisions and assumptions.. The Sentry knows Creon is wrong, because he knows that he isn’t responsible for what Creon is accusing him of.
What is the main idea of Ode 1? Man is an awesome creature, able to conquer everything in his path (seas, animals,weather) but there is one thing man can’t conquer: death. This will always conquer every man.
How does Antigone react when she is caught by the sentries? She does not resist anything. She calmly submits to arrest and cooperates without fight.
What is Antigone’s defense when Creon asks her why she defied his law? Antigone believes its her responsibility to obey the laws of the gods first, which dictates she is bound to bury loved ones to ensure the rest of the soul and to protect herself from the god’s wrath. Creon is only a man therefore his laws can’t stand against the laws of the gods. It is more important to obey the god’s eternal laws than man’s laws and consequences. She knows she is a mortal and will die anyways.
What is Antigone’s attitude toward death? She knows she is a mortal and is gong to die anyway. She feels it would be better to go now and having done the right thing than live later and suffer the consequences for ignoring the duty to her brother and the gods. She also notes that she is surrounded by wickedness, so death will not be unwelcome.
Explain Antigone’s statement: “Think me a fool, if you like; but it may well be that a fool convicts me of folly.” She is calling Creon a fool. He blames her for foolishly breaking the law, but she believes he is foolish for disobeying the gods-that is the ultimate foolishness, and the wrath of the gods is powerful and inescapable.
What is Antigone’s “double insolence”, according to Creon? She is proud of breaking the law and brags about it.
Why do you think that Creon also arrests Ismene, even though she was not caught at the scene? Creon noticed she’s been moping around and since the two are sisters, he assumes her moping is due to keeping her sister’s secret, making her an accomplice. He is under a false/paranoid impression that the sisters are plotting to overthrow him.
What final appeal does Ismene make to Creon regarding Antigone’s life? What is Creon’s first response to this appeal? Ismene reminds Creon that Antigone is engaged to marry Creon’s son. She points out that he would be punishing his son by taking his love away from him. Creon is unconcemed; he says there are plenty of other women available and his son can replace Antigone with a less wicked woman.
What can we assume Creon’s attitude towards women is? How does this reflect Ismene’s attitude from the Prologue? What can we assume about the status of women in this Greek culture? He comments at ease at which Antigone could be replaced as well as the sexual innuendo apparent in his comment about “pushing his plow” leading the reader to believe that Creon has no respect for females. He obviously thinks they are “disposable” and beneath men. This reflects Ismene’s attitude when she remarks that she is a women and cannot, therefore, fight against the men. She also sees women as weak and submissive to men. This points to the fact that women were not highly respected and considered inferior in this culture.
What do the last three lines of Ode 2 say about fate and man? It says that fate will ultimately cause pain and sorrow for man.. Man may do something that brings temporary joy, but in the end, fate will always bring man sorrow, especially considering that every man’s final fate is death, which is sorrowful. It also refers to Antigone’s pleasure gained by burying her brother which will lead to sorrowful consequences.
Describe the Theater of Dionysus. Outdoor amphitheater, semicircular football stadium, seats were carved on a hill, from was a rounded place called orchestra, and back was a platform where actors spoke lines.
What is the orchestra? large space where the chorus sang and danced around the remnant of an altar.
Describe the role of the masks. Amplified the actors voice, stylized into familiar character types- distinguished between characters.
Who was allowed to act in the theater? only males.
To what important part of Greek culture was drama closely related? Religion
What is a MYTH? An old story, rooted in a particular society, that explains a belief, ritual, or some mysterious aspect of nature.
Ways to think about/define myths? Describe historical events, represent timeless philosophical and psychological truths, symbolic representations of important natural processes.
What do all myths have in common? Represent reality and human condition, find them in all cultures, all use the same archetypes.
Define Archetype. Typical character with universal elements who appears in mythology in all cultures.
The Transgressor Someone who breaks the rules and gets in trouble for it (EX:Prometheus, Jekyll)
The Trickster A fun character who survives by wits or skill rather than strength or power (EX:Hermes, Bart Simpson)
The Temptress Uses looks as her power; amoral, not evil; her nature is to be irresistible (EX:Aphrodite, Juliet)
The Destroyer Takes things apart for the sake of destroying (EX: Hades, Darth Vader)
The Hero Has a mission that only he can do and goes to complete it (EX: Hercules, Luke Skywalker)
Where and when did theater originate? ancient Greece between 600 and 200 BC
Theatre evolved from ___ dating back to ______ from the Cult of _____. religious rites, 1200 BC, Dionysis
Dionysis is the Greek god of _____. Wine and fertility
The Cult of Dionysis originated where? Thrace- area in Nothern Greece
What were some of the celebrations of this Cult’s religious rites? Practices of emotional release
From these practices, we derive what words? hysteria, ecstasy, and catharsis
What is Catharsis? The purging and release of powerful/negative emotions-important concept to the Greeks
What did the Greeks believe would happen without catharsis? Humans would be tempted to act upon crude and base emotions and commit immoral crimes against the gods and humanity.
What began to be the main outlet for such purgation? Theater
What is the New Cult that rises after the Cult of Dionysis spread throughout Greece? included a chorus of up to 50 men dressed as satyrs (part goat part man) who performed with musical instruments, chanted, and danced in honor of Dionysis.
This Cult reached where and when? Athens, the mecca of Greek civilization, around 600 BC. Then evolved into what we know now as theater.
What happened in Athens between 600 and 500 BC? Dramatic competitions were created, many theaters were constructed theater and dramatists/playwrights became extremely popular.
The Great Dionysia Major drama festival/competition in honor of Dionysis, held in Athens every March, 3 playwrights participated contributing 4 plays each, lasted 6 days, festival included parades performances and parties
Thespis Famous greek dramatist(Athenian), added protagonist character, created traveling theater troupe,modern word thespian meaning actor comes from Thespis.
Aeschylus Famous Greek dramatist/playwright, added antagonist, teacher/mentor of many famous future dramatists including Sophocles
Sophocles Wrote Antigone, wrote over 120 plays only 7 survive, beat Aeschylus in Great Dionysia and won at least 20 more and came in second in many others, considered favorite of Greek people and the gods, handsome wealthy charming, appointed to political/military positions due to his popularity.
How did Sophocles change theater? Increased chorus from 12 to 15, used painted scenery, used 3 actors instead of 2.
Protagonist Admired,but flawed; confronted by hostile forces such as society, life rules, family, or fate; character often refuses to acquiesce to such forces and is forced to make important moral decisions.
What are most tragedies based on? Myth
How many actors are there? Chorus? 2-3 actors; 12-15 chorus
Two major elements of Greek tragedy according to Aristotle. 1). There must be a plot that depicts a dramatic change from prosperity to misfortune for the protagonist caused my HAMARTIA(inherent flaw/error in judgement) or HUBRIS(false sense of pride in one’s own positivity)2). Must invoke dual emotions in the audience:pity and fear pity for the hero’s misfortune and fear that such misfortune can happen to you(leads to CATHARSIS)
Characteristics of Tragic Hero Larger than life- memorable person, of noble birth, presence of a tragic flow(Hamartha), realization of the flaw by the end of the play
Prologue in Antigone Establishes the central moral issue and basis conflicts of the tragedy-loyalty to family, religion, and civil rights (the “public good”)
Parados first ode or choral song in a Greek tragedy, chanted by the chorus as it enters the area in front of the stage
Parados in Antigone The chorus recounts the battle between 2 brothers, Polyneices and Eteocles, and their armies; the chorus suggests that Zeus intervened on the side of Eteocles and drove back the Argive army
Strophe part of the ode that the chorus chants as it moves from right to left across the stage
Antistrophe part of the ode chanted as the chorus moves back across the stage from left to right
Choragos leader of the chorus
Ode the choral song that follows each scene in a Greek tragedy; purpose is to separate scenes (in lieu of curtain) and to provide the chorus’s response to the preceding scene
Allusion reference to another literary source
Foil Characters who have contrasting or opposite qualities
What reason might Creon have to question his son’s loyalty in Scene 3? He is concerned that Haimon’s loyalty might have shifted to Antigone. She may have seduced him into turning against his father.
List two examples from Creon’s lines that exemplify his ideas about governing; then summarize Creon’s views of government in your own words. “My voice is the one voice giving orders in this city” and “he who is chosen to govern should be obeyed”. Both are dangerous for any leader, as the altitude indicates that no one’s opinions is valid other than the King’s. This would mean that the beliefs and concerns of the people have no effect on governing of their own kingdom. The Second quote indicates that a leader need not to be right or fair in his judgement, but that he must be obeyed regardless. These sentiments sound more akin of a tyrant or dictator.
Summarize Haimon’s appeal to his father in this scene. What are his tactics? What are his arguments? Haimon begins by flattering his father proclaiming loyalty to him. He knows his father’s temper therefore he knows he must approach him in an appeasing manner, both calm and respectful. Then he gently attempts to convince his father to be more reasonable. He explains that while Creon is certainly able to reason, it is also sensible to listen to others opinions who have ability to reason as well. He warns Creon that people in the kingdom disagree with him and his lack of flexibility could cause problems with those in the kingdom who have different ioinions. He explains that it is sometimes necessary and the most reasonable thing to do is compromise.
What information does Haimon provide to the king about the people and their opinions on the matter at hand? Who else in the play has suggested this to Creon? He says that the people feel that not only should Antigone not be punished, but that she should be praised for the courageous and selfless act. He explains to Creon that no one will admit this because they fear his temper, like Antigone mentioned earlier.
Explain the two metaphors Haimons uses to attempt to persuade his father to listen to his advice. “In flood time you can see how some trees bend..” “Sailboat will sail..” They both say that things change, even stubborn things, therefore Creon should change his mind about Antigone.
Why do you think Creon changes his mind about the fates of Ismene and Antugone at the end of the scene? Perhaps Haimon got through to him to some extent after all. Ismene is innocent and he doesn’t want Antigone’s blood on his hands, causing the gods to be angry with him. If he locks her up and provides necessities, whatever happens is left up to the gods.
What is the message of Ode 3? How is it similar to Ode 1? Love is not conquerable and even pure immortals can not conquer it. It is similar bc the first ode talks about how man can not escape death.
How has Antigone’s demeanor or tone changed in this scene? Why do you think this change has taken place? She is not quite as stoic and tough as she was and now she wants pity from the chorus for her dire situation. Perhaps the reality of the situation and impending doom is finally setting in. She may have believed that she might get out of this considering her position as princess and the support she has from the citizenry.
To what other character from Greek mythology does she compare herself with? Why? Niobe. Like Niobe, who lost her children and was turned into a stone statue, Antigone has lost her family and is to be imprisoned in stone. She can relate to Niobe’s loneliness and unfair imprisonment in her death. Niobe was also punished for being an arrogant braggart, a trait similar to Antigone.
How does the chorus react to Antigone’s claim that her fate is the fault of the family curse? While they acknowledge the family curse, they do not attribute Antigone’s current grief to it. They point out that she acted freely knowing the consequence before hand. She has only herself to blame this time.
What does Antigone have in common with the mythological characters alluded to in Ode 4? Characters are all imprisoned into stone, some wrongfully(Danae, Cleopatra) as Antigone will be. There is another connection between Oedipus and Perseus who were fated to kill family patriarchs both of whom tried unsuccessfully to prevent the prophecy from occurring. In addition, there are connections with theme of blindness and stubborn oppressive rulers.
Why is it ironic that Teiresias is blind? He can figuratively see everything (as prophets see the future) but literally he can see nothing.
Why is Creon indebted to Teiresias? It was Teiresias who revealed the truth of Oedipus about fulfillment of the prophecy, causing Oedipus to leave Thebes. This eventually leads Creon to being on the throne as king. Therefore Teiresias is indirectly responsible for Creon’s position as king.
What does Teiresias cite as Creon’s crimes, and what does the prophecy say will happen if he does not do something to correct them? He refused to bury Polyneices as demanded by the gods and he has wrongfully imprisoned Antigone for doing her duty to the dead and gods. If he doesn’t take action to repair these wrongs, he will bring wrath of the gods to himself, his family, and his kingdoms. He warns that he will pay corpse for corpse from his own family members for those he mistreated.
What is the opinions of the Choragos regarding what Teiresias has said? The Choragos is an old man and in all his years he has never known Teiresias to be wrong and Creon had better take his advice immediately.
What does Creon decide by the end of the scene? Why? He will take Teiresias’ advice and the Choragos and bury Polyneices and release Antigone. He is finally frightened by possible wrath of the gods. He finally understands that he should not deny the laws of the gods.
What is a “paean”? A hymn in praise of a god
What god is being honored in the paean and why? Dionysis- Firstly, theatre originated in his cult so it is fitting that he should be referenced in a play. Secondly, he is the grandson of the founder of Thebes (Cadmus) therefore people of Thebes sort of see him as their patron god. They ask for help, as they know Creon has incurred the wrath of the gods, Dionysis may be their only hope.
What is an Exodus? The final, or exit scene, of the play.
Summarize the messenger’s message about the “condition of human life”. No person’s fate is permanent. Happy people can suddenly experience tragedy and become unhappy and the unfortunate can always have change in fortune and become happy. The messenger notes that regardless of wealth, power, and success, any man can be made unhappy. Such is the case with Creon. The messenger would rather be lowly but a happy messenger than being a king with unhappy fate.
Explain the event of the deaths of Haimon and Antigone. When Haimon goes to Antigone’s cell to rescue her, he finds out that she has already committed suicide by hanging herself with her veil. Soon after, Creon enters and Haimon attempts to kill him by lunging at him with his sword. He misses and in his deep despair, turns the sword on himself. As he dies, he pulls his dead bride into his arms.
What happens to Eurydice? What do her final words indicate? She kills herself out of grief for her dead sons. She blames and curses Creon for the deaths of her sons.
How does Creon react to all that has happened in the Exodus? He finally recognizes his own hand in the matter. He blames himself for all the tragedy that has occurred and he now wished for his own death to escape from immense grief.
Explain how the last speech of the Choragos describes Creon’s current situation. Creon has been unwise and brought about his own unhappiness by defying the gods. He has been too prideful and stubborn and though he finally learned his lesson, he learned it too late.
How does Creon fit the tragic hero definition? Creon is born of nobility and is a well known Theban. He has a tragic flaw, his stubborn pride, which leads to his downfall. By the end of the story, he does recognize his flaw an that his flaw brought calamity upon himself.
Does Antigone fit the tragic hero description? No- doesn’t realize the flaw.
Round Characters complex and multidimensional, like real people. (Antigone, Creon)
Flat Characters one dimensional and superficial; they can be described in a single sentence. (Choragos, Ismene, Sentry)
Dynamic Characters change in an important way because of the stories action (Creon)
Static Characters Do not change much or at all during the story (Choragos)
Stock Characters Predictable or stereotypical characters that appear throughout literary works (Sentry-Comic relief)
Tragic hero a great or virtuous character in a dramatic tragedy who is destined for downfall, suffering, or defeat: Oedipus, the classic tragic hero.
Tragic hero is Creon
Position of power King CreonPrincess Antigone
Tragic flaw of Creon Pride and arrogance
Tragic flaw of Antigone stubborn and headstrong
Recognizes error Creon
What is the conflict? Mans laws vs gods laws (Creon & Antigone) good vs good
Chorus 15, Thebes elders
Choragos Head of the chorus
Odes Break up scenes
What did Antigone do bad? Broke the law and buried her brother
Who is Antigones partner? Haimon
Who is Haimon? Creons son, Antigones partner
Zeus Gods of all gods
What does Creon fear? Anarchists(people trying to throw govt) and women
What is a metaphor? Tree and a sail (will bend slowly and go back, compromise)
What is Antigone compared to? A mother bird comes back to stripped nest
Who is Ismene? Antigones sister
Who is getting buried? Polyneices
What does Ismene do? Steps up and takes the blame for burying her brother
What does Creon do and Ismene and Antigone? Stone them to death for burying Polyneices (Ismene didnt)
Creon decides to do what with Ismene? Let her go
Creon decides to do what to Antigone? Change her death which is put her in tomb of stone, give her some food, and leave her there.
“You will remember how I suffered!” Antigone
What curse does Antigone bring upon? Hopes your punishment equals mine to Creon.
Pattern of birds Killing each other
Why does Blind Teiresias blame Creon? He didn’t bury the body
What does Choragos tell Creon? To free Antigone and build a tomb for the body of Polyneices
What do the birds represent? A bad omen
“I’m a walking dead man but suffering” Creon
“I can’t risk everything because my pride” Creon
What does Creon ask Choragos to do? Choragos tells him to free Antigone and bury Polyneices
What happened to Haimon? Killed his self in front of Creon?
Who is the Queen? Eurydice
What did Eurydice find out? Haimon killed his self
Who is Megareus? Older son of Eurydice and Creon
How did Megareus die? During the Argive assault on Thebes
What did Creon do first, the body or free Antigone? Buried the body
What happened to Antigone? She hung herself bc she didn’t want to suffer
What happened to the Queen? She killed herself with her son
What did the Queen do before she killed herself? Claimed Creon as a murderer for her two sons and cursed him
What is the fate of the story? Negative force; karma
What does Sophocoles always include in his stories? A moral lesson
Who is the author? Sophocles
Comedy A less serious kind of drama than tragedy. Not always funny
Tragedy Relates to early beginnings of theatre, being made up from the Greek words “tragos”=goat and “ode”=song
Greek theaters seats how many people? 15,000
Costumes Actors wore the expensive things and large masks.
Orchestra Circular, flat area located in front of the scene building on which the chorus of a Classical Greek play performed.
Another word for “dancing place” orchestra
Scene building Adjacent to the orchestra facing the theate on that provided an entrance for actors and space for costume changes and scenic devices.
What comes for the modern world scene (scenery)? scene building
Theatron Setting area of a Classical Greek theatre. Built into a hillside, first in wood and later in stone. Divided into wedges for tribes of Attica & held 14000-20000 spectators.
TRAGEDY (def) Drama that tells the story of the fall of a person of high status. Celebrates the courage and dignity of a tragic hero.
Tragic hero a character who possesses noble qualities but who also has a tragic flaw that bring his or her in a tragedy.
What are the three main characteristics of a tragic hero? Not all good, not all bad. Comes from a position of power, and recognizes error in the end
Plot series of events related to the central conflict, or struggle.
Exposition Necessary information about the background of the characters and situation in a play. Info presented early in play and prepared the read to understand developing complications.
Rising action Series of events that lead to the climax of the story, usually the conflicts or struggles of the protagonist (conflict)
Climax Turning point in the action of a play, or the point of greatest interest.
Linear plot Involves rising and falling action
Falling action Includes the elements of the plot in which the hero (protagonist) moves steadily toward the inevitable conclusion.
Resolution Conclusion of linear plot, the portion following the click where the action is brought to s close and any remaining plot details are resolved.
Antagonist Opposing character or force in conflict with the main character in a play “bad guy”
Protagonist Main character in a play or drama, opposed with other character. Good guy
Sophocles Author or Antigone. Wrote more than 125 plays, only seven survived. Most important playwrights in lit
“You shall pay back corpse for corpse, flesh of you own flesh” Teiresias
T/F in the battle for Thebes, Polyneices kills Eteocles, and Creon kills Polyneices. False
What does Antigone ask her sister to do? Help bury Polynecies
What is the penalty for burying Polyneices? Stoned to death
Characters who have opposite or contrasting qualities are called foil characters.
T/F Creon puts law above private concerns True
T/F the citizens refuse to support Creons order False
T/F the sentry reports that Polyneices body was stolen False; buried
T/F Creon says that some or has bribed the sentry True
Why does Antigone bury her brother? Gods laws
What two things does Creon fear the most? Anarchists and women
What two metaphors does Haimon use when trying to persuade his father to change? Tree and sail
What is Choragos view on the conversation and why? Both listen to each other, stay neutral
What is Antigones fate now? In a tomb, enough food for a day
Who does Antigone compare her fate to? Niobe, Tantalos daughter
What does Antigone look forward to? Seeing her father, mother, and brother (Polyneices) not Etecoles
Who is Dionysos? The God of win and fertility.
What did Thespis do? Transformed these hymns into songs that honored Dionysos but also told the story of a famous hero or even another god
What is a thespian? Refers to an actor or actress
What is a catharsis? Strangely pleasurable sense of emotional release we experience after watching a great tragedy
What two emotions does tragedy around? Pity and fear
What did Sophocles hope people would say about him? One of his characters says after Oedipus dies and is mysteriously carried off by the gods
Antigone Protagonist, main character, daughter of the former King; Buries Polyneices
Ismene charged with helping to bury Polyneices but was later let off
Eteocles Son and brother of Oedipus; refuses to handover the throne and is killed in battle over it by his brother
Polynieces Son and brother of Oedipus; declares war when the throne isn’t handed over to him; killed in battle by his brother
Oedipus Oracle of Delphi said he would kill his father and marry his mother and he eventually did; rids Thebes of the sphinx; stabs out his eyes when he realizes what he did
Jocasta Queen of Thebes and mother and wife to Oedipus; hangs herself once it is realized that Oedipus is also her son
Eurydice Wife of King Creon
Creon Brother of queen Jacosta; becomes ruler of Thebes after Eteocles and Polyneices die
Haimon Son of King Creon; engaged to marry Antigone
Teiresias A blind prophet
Sentry A soldier that keeps guard
Chorus Up to 50 members; used to foreshadow, set mood, react to onstage events; represent a large range of characters
Choragos Leader of the chorus
Thebes In what city is this drama set?
Burying Polyneices In the prologue, over what are Antigone and Ismene arguing?
Polyneices Who killed Eteocles?
Eteocles Who killed Polyneices?
Creon Because both princes are dead, who is the new king?
Ismene Which sister refuses to go against the king’s orders to bury her dead brother?
Soliloquy A lengthy speech where the character is alone on stage
Bury or pay respects to Polyneices In the end of his Scene I speech, what does the king command the town not to do?
Someone has buried Polyneices What news does the Sentry report to Creon?
It was with a layer of dust What is strange about the way Polyneices was buried?
Kill the Sentry What will King Creon do to the Sentry if they can’t find the criminal?
Ismene What character is accused with Antigone?
Disapprove According to Antigone , do the people of Thebes approve or disapprove or King Creon’s judgment against Polyneice’s death?
Haimon Antigone is engaged to marry which character?
Ismene Who does King Creon decide to release from punishment at the end of scene three?
Sealing her in a stone vault until she dies At the end of scene three, how does King Creon decide to punish Antigone?
Former queen of Thebes punished by the gods for hubris Describe the story of Niobe.
Pity Antigone ask the people of Thebes to ____ her
Oedipus and Jacosta committing incest What does Antigone blame for her fate?
Those being punished were imprisoned What do all stories in the footnotes of ode 4 have in common?
Contrast In scene five, the stage directions indicate that Teiresias should speak in a singsong voice, and that voice should ____ King Creon’s manner of speaking
He can’t see what’s in front of him but sees the future Explain the irony of Teiresias, the fortuneteller, being blind.
god of fire is withholding fire and sacrifices are being rejected bc the animals ate Polyneices corpse What are the two signs of calamity that Teiresias sees?
Pride In line 35, Teiresias states that the only crime is what?
Reject Does Creon accept or reject Teiresias’s prophecy?
He knew the brothers would kill each other Teiresias claims that he is the reason Creon became king. Explain.
He will die What does Teiresias say will happen to King Creon?
Choragos Who convinces Creon to set Antigone free?
A song of praise, joy, and thanksgiving to Dionysis What is the purpose of the Paean?
Choragos In the Exodos, who is the messenger speaking to?
Haimon committed suicide The messenger tells Choragos that someone is dead. Who is dead? How did he die?
Bathe it in holy water and burn it What does Creon do to Polyneices’s body?
Antigone hung herself and Haimon is lamenting her What does Creon find when he went to Antigone’s vault?
Suicide; hung herself with a veil What is Antigone’s ultimate fate, and how does it come to be?
King Creon Who does Haimon blame for Antigone’s ultimate fate?
Suicide; lamenting over Antigone Explain Haimon’s ultimate fate and how it comes to be.
Commits suicide How does Eurydice react to the news of her son’s death?
Commit suicide What is the fate of the queen?
King Creon Who does Eurydice curse?
Himself Who does Creon blame for the ultimate fates of those he loves?
setting thebes 13 century BC
Antigone main character
ismene sister of antigone
oedipus killed married his mom had 4 kids
creon iocaste brother, present king
Argive(argos) helped polynieces attack thebes(not successful)
eteocles loyal fighter
polyneices traitor
What is creons edict? Why has he decided to make this proclamation? Anyone who betrays the city will be killed and left to rot
What is the difference of opinion between Antigone and Ismene? Antigone is brave and courageous and Ismene is weak and timid.
What is Antigones tone while talking to ismene? sassy. she is glad that ismene isnt helping her
underlying the conflict between antigone and ismene are some larger issues or conflicts identify them. man vs man gods law peoples law, creon vs antigone
“there it is; and now you can prove what you are: a true sister or a traitor to your family” antigone to ismene she is letting ismene know that she has options
“for god hates utterly the bray of bragging tongues the arogance/cockyness of polyneces . Greeks hated arogance
creon king of thebes
guard told creon the bad news
in his speech what quality does creon compliment the men of thebes for possessing loyalty wants guards to be loyal to him and he is trying to butter them up.
What is creon explanation for his decision not to bury polynieces? What do you think of his explanation? he doesnt talk about family he talks about relationships. He isnt going to let family get in the way of his work
“i have been wondering king can it be that the gods have done this?” choragos to creon. law was against the gods creon says is intolerable creon is silencing opinions.
“are you sure that it is my voice and not your conscience?” sentry to creon. creon is feeling guilty and stubborn/hubris
hubris excessive arogance
haimon creons son and antigones fiance
in the opening lines how does choragos react to antigones situation in disbelief
summarize the story sentry tells creon about what has happened to polyneices corpse what is sentrys reaction to what has happened undusted the body then the big dust storm came then antigone was crying then they saw her pour wine for a proper burial at noon antigone went along with the guards and didnt fight
after dismissing sentry creon seems to be trying to give sentry a way out of the situation. How does he do this and how does antigone respond? Why? asks antigone to explain herself and he responds “it was public so i cant deny it”
antigone uses the words “fool” and folly” who is accused of folly? qhat do you think? antigone. creon made her feel belittled. Antigone said creon is a fool. Creon thinks woman arent brave and he thinks men should have authority
what attitude does creon take toward antigone? give examples that illustrate his attitude creons very disrespectful he says that he will get bored of antigone creon says “we should at leat lose to a man”
what does creon say about anarchy? would antigone agree with him why or why not? anarchy: absense to a ruler. they cant show creon anything worse than anarchy antigone says going against the gods is wo
how does haimon respond to creon at the begginning of the scene? What value of the greeks does creon expect and haimon exhibit? creon reminds haimon that respect his elders haimon says he respects creon because he is creons father and king
creon once again defends his ddecision to kill antigone outline his argument creon doesnt want to give antigone any special treatment just because she is family he cant appear to be weak
how does haimon attempt to persuade creon that he is wrong? how does haimon tempermant compare to creons haimon is much more reasonable and he thinks of woman as equals
how does creon repond to haimons attempts to change his mind? point out examples of hubris in his response to his son creon was offended and said he was wrong because he is younger and creon is the king and is never wrong
tragic flaw HUBRIS
both creon and haimon issue threats give examples youll never marry her while she lives creon will kill antigone right infront of haimon he will put antigone in a vault of stone haimon will run away and never come back
in the begginning how does choragos feel? very sad
what is antigones tone in scene 4 self pittying, helpless she knows the fights over she hoped poeple would feel sorry for her
what does chorus say is the reason antigone is facing death you have made your choice your death is the doing of you own conscious hand
how does antigone attempt to elicit sympathy for her situation shes directly asking/begging people to show her some love
what are the main points creon made at his device moment in the play? what can you infer about his internal conflict> if she lives or dies its her problem his hands are clean she is trying to stall he is impatient
what is the subject of ode iv? what main idea is conveyed? antigones lasts words are cursing creon
teiresias told oedipus to investigate the prophecy “seer” of the future
the edge of fire somethings right about to happen
hephaestus god of fire
furies goddesses of vengence who punished those who committed crimes againt their own families
eurydice queen pf thebes, creons wife and she killed herself
walks on 4 legs in morn, 2 legs in afternoon, 3 legs in evening man
Greek festival held in March, presented new tragedies and satires Great Dionyssia
Greek god of theatre, wine, fertility Dionysos
no one may mourn or bury Polyneices Creon’s decree
blind oracle Tieresias
sister of Antigone Ismene
wife/mother of Oedipus Jocasta
leader of choir, head adviser to Creon Choragos
first king of Thebes in reference to this play Laios
first suspect in burial of Polyneices Sentry
follows divine law Antigone
topic of Creon’s opening speech loyalty
lost in the “roll of the dice” Sentry
monster that terrorized Thebes with a riddle Sphnix
engaged to Antigone Haimon
father of Etecoles and Polyneices Oedipus
author of this play Sophocles
sacred animal of Dionysos goat
moment tragic hero realizes he’s made a terrible mistake anagnorisis
considered a traitor to Thebes Polyneices
fulfilled a prophecy Oedipus
considered a hero in Thebes Etecoles
death or great suffering in a tragedy catastrophe
how Haimon and Antigone are related cousins
stabbed herself in her heart Eurydice
tells Creon citizens disagree with his decision to kill Antigone Haimon
serves as the “middleman” between father and son Choragos
the gods will always punish this flaw hubris
hanged herself Antigone
current queen of Thebes Eurydice
former queen of Thebes Jocasta
tragic hero of this tragedy Creon
told Creon of bad omens Tieresias
only living offspring of Oedipus at play’s conclusion Ismene
final step in a tragedy order is restored
the paean honors him Dionysos
stabbed himself Haimon
what Eurydice puts on Creon curse
tells all of the deaths at the cave messenger
used by Antigone to kill herself veil
belief in many gods polytheism
reason Greeks didn’t show death on stage uncivilized
convinces Creon to listen to oracle Choragos
is able to give Polyneices a totally proper burial Creon
whom Antigone blames for her predicament Oedipus
whom the chorus blames for Antigone’s predicament Antigone
whom Eurydice blames for both sons’ deaths Creon
Creon’s only heir Haimon
Antigone’s original death sentence stoning
tried to stab Creon Haimon
Antigone angered Creon with her ? boasting
Antigone asks to be remembered with ? love
man can control everything but ? death
ode 2 compares Antigone to a ? flower
Creon fears being humiliated by women or by ? anarchists
tried to reason with Creon to try to get him to change his mind Choragos
lesson Myth of Oedipus Rex should teach never try to escape one’s fate
the play teaches that sometimes doing the right thing? doesn’t always make a difference
the Greek gods hate excessive pride
6 characteristics of a tragic hero??? main character, high rank, noble character (within), tragic flaw(s), realize errors and try to make amends, great suffering/death
protagonist The main or central character. Antigone is the _________ of the play. Another word to describe her is heroine (the term for a female hero).
antagonist The character of force that opposes or blocks the main character (protagonist) in a narrative. Creon is the ___________ in the play.
chorus A major element in Greek drama, this acts as the voice of humanity by commenting on the action and explaining the situations on stage.
parados The opening song where the chorus sets up the major conflict in the play.
sated satisfied and pleased
anarchists those who disrespect laws or rules
sententiously pointed; expressing much in few words
sultry oppressively hot or moist; inflamed
transcends goes above or beyond limits; exceeds
ode A song performed by the chorus in between scenes (or episodes). These function as the closing of a curtain would in modern theater, and they often provide commentary on the events that surround them.
foil A character who, through contrast, reveals the characteristics of another character. Ismene is the ______ of Antigone.
analogy A similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them. An ________ can explain something unfamiliar by associating it with or pointing out its similarity to something more familiar. These can also make writing more vivid, imaginative, or intellectually engaging.
allusion A reference in a work of literature to something outside the work, especially to a well-known historical or literary event, person, or work. There are numerous ________ to various Greek myths throughout the play.
motif A recurring pattern of symbols, colors, events, allusions, or imagery. In literature, disturbances in nature often signify disorder in the state.
tragic hero A privileged, exalted character of high repute, who, by virtue of a tragic flaw and fate, suffers a fall from glory into suffering.
tragic flaw A moral weakness in character which inevitably leads to disaster and that character’s downfall.
Antigone daughter of Oedipus, former King of Thebes, fiancee of Haimon, buries her brother Polyneices
Ismene the daughter of Oedipus on the side of human law, the heroine’s sister
Creon King of Thebes, uncle of Antigone and Ismene, father of Haimon and Megareus
A Sentry brings word Polyneices has been buried; later he captures Antigone
Choragos the leader of the chorus
“Creon buried our brother EteoclesWith military honors, gave him a soldier’s funeral,And it was right that he should; but Polyneices,Who fought as bravely and died as miserably, –They say that Creon has swornNo one shall bury him, no one mourn for him.But his body must lie in the fields, a sweet treasureFor carrion birds to find as they search for food, That is what they say…” Antigone to Ismene – She is setting up the central conflict, and relaying news of Creon’s decree regarding their brother Polyneices. Creon has said that no one is to mourn for him or bury him. He is to be left in a field to rot and be fed on by animals. If anyone buries him they will be put to death.
“And now you can prove what you are:A true sister, or a traitor to your family.” Antigone to Ismene – This is Antigone’s challenge to her sister. Will you do what is right and stand by the family, or will you turn your back on us?
“Think how much more terrible than theseOur own death would be if we should go against Creon And do what he has forbidden! We are only women,We cannot fight with men, Antigone!The law is strong, we must give in to the lawIn this thing, and in worse. I beg the DeadTo forgive me, but I am helpless: I must yieldTo those in authority. And I think it is dangerousbusinessTo be always meddling.” Ismene to Antigone – Ismene is afraid of dying; she believes women are not as strong as men; and she is afraid of authority. She is trying to tell her sister that there is no telling what Creon will do to them if they disobey. Ismene falls on the side of human law.
“But I will bury him: and if I must die,I say that this crime is holy: I shall lie downWith him in death, and I shall be as dearTo him as he to me.It is the dead,Not the living, who make the longest demands;We die forever….You may do as you like,Since apparently the laws of the gods mean nothing to you.” Antigone to Ismene – She falls on the side of divine law. Her crime is holy because the gods want her brother to be buried. She is determined to do the right thing and does not fear the consequence.
“For God hates utterlyThe bray of bragging tongues;And when he beheld their smiling,Their swagger of golden helms,The frown of his thunder blastedTheir first man from our walls.” Choragos (speaking to audience) – This explains that when God (Zeus) saw the bragging of Polyneices’s troops he turned against them and brought about their defeat. They displeased him and paid for it.
“Gentlemen: I have the honor to inform you that our Ship of State, which recent storms have threatened to destroy, has come safely to harbor at last, guided by the merciful wisdom of Heaven.” Creon to Chorus – He is speaking about order being restored in Thebes after the battle between Polyneices and Eteocles. Note he alludes to the city being guided to this peace by the wisdom of the gods.
“I am aware, of course, that no Ruler can expect complete loyalty from his subjects until he has been tested in office. Nevertheless, I say to you at the very outset that I have nothing but contempt for the kind of Governor who is afraid, for whatever reason, to follow the course that he knows is best for the State; and as for the man who sets private friendship above the public welfare, — I have no use for him either.” Creon to Chorus – He is stating his thoughts about rulers and subjects. Rulers should do what is best for their region and people – REGARDLESS of personal relationships. Subjects should likewise follow the decrees and laws made by their rulers. He is the antagonist and he is on the side of human law.
“No one values friendship more highly than I; but we must remember that friends made at the risk of wrecking our Ship are not real friends at all.” Creon to Chorus – Personal relationships must not interfere because they have a chance of damaging the State.
“Polyneices, I say, is to have no burial: no man is to touch him or say the least prayer for him;he shall lie on the plain, unburied; and thebirds and the scavenging dogs can do with himwhatever they like.” Creon to Chorus – Stating his decree regarding Polyneices publicly. This is the central conflict of the play.
“As long as I am King, no traitor is going to be honored with the loyal man. But who-ever shows by word and deed that he is on the side of the State, — he shall have my respect whilehe is living, and my reverence when he is dead.” Creon to Chorus – Eteocles received a funeral and military honors because he was on the side of Thebes. Creon will respect him. Polyneices is not being given a burial because he went against Thebes. He is the traitor alluded to here.
“The body, just mounded over with light dust; you see?Not buried really, but as if they’d covered itJust enough for the ghost’s peace. And no signOf dogs or any wild animal that had been there.” Sentry to Creon – He is reporting that someone buried Polyneices.
“I have been wondering, King: can it be that the gods have done this?” Choragos to Creon and the Sentry – He is suggesting that Creon’s decree may have displeased the gods, and maybe they buried Polyneices. The gods are on Antigone’s side.
“The gods favor this corpse? Why? How had he served them?…Is it your senile opinion that the gods love to honor bad men?” Creon to Choragos – He is furious at Choragos’s idea that the gods would favor the traitor Polyneices. Creon views this as a ridiculous idea. This shows his arrogance. He thinks he knows better than the gods.
“I swear by God and by the throne of God,The man who has done this thing shall pay for it!Find that man, bring him here to me, or your deathWill be the least of your problems…” Creon to the Sentry – He turns his anger on the messenger and orders him to find whoever buried Polyneices so he or she can be punished.
“I have seen a mother bird come back to a stripped nest, heardHer crying bitterly a broken note or twoFor the young ones stolen. Just so, when this girl Found the bare corpse, and all her love’s work wasted,She wept, and cried on heaven to damn the hands That had done this thing…” Sentry to Creon – He is describing the scene when Antigone was caught attempting to rebury her brother. He compares her to a mother bird whose babies have been taken from her in an effort to show she acted out of love.
“Your edict, King, was strong.But all your strength is weakness itself againstThe immortal unrecorded laws of God.They are not merely now: they were, and shall be,Operative forever, beyond man utterly.” Antigone to Creon – His law is not more important than the laws of the gods. Those laws are eternal.
“The girl is guilty of a double insolence,Breaking the given laws and boasting of it.Who is the man here,She or I, if this crime goes unpunished?…she and her sisterWin bitter death for this!” Creon to Choragos and Antigone – He accuses Antigone of breaking the law and boasting (bragging) about it. He also expresses that if he does not punish her – even though she is his niece — he will be perceived as a weak leader. Not only does he say she will be punished, he also plans to punish Ismene who did not help her.
“But now I know what you meant; and I am hereTo join you, to take my share of punishment.” Ismene to Antigone – She is begging Antigone to let her be punished too.
Huberis overweening pride which results in the misfortune of the protagonist; a tragic flaw that results from excessive pride, ambition, overconfidence, etc. that leads to the protagonist to break a moral law or ignore a divine warning with catastrophic results.
What was the “Great Dionysia” (p. 68)? A major drama festival in Athens Greece
List Sophocles’ ‘Theban plays’ in the order in which they were written (p. 68). Antigone, Oedipus Tyrannus, Oedipus at Colonus
Explain how Thespis invented acting (p. 69). He started performing the actions on a stage instead of just narrating them.
Explain how the three actors were able to play multiple roles (p. 69). They would just change their masks backstage
What was the most important convention of the Greek stage (p. 69)? Wearing masks with attached wigs
Describe the setting of Greek tragedies (place and time) (p. 69). They r set outside and take place over the course of a single day.
True or False: Scenery and props played a large part in Greek tragedy (p. 69). False they used barley any props
“Every play’s Chorus ( ) took on an identity appropriate to the play (p. 70). usually 14 men
What was the main function of the Chorus (p. 70)? Sing and dance lyric odes between scences
What is the purpose of an ode? (p. 70) An ode is to comment on the action
What is another name for an ode? (p. 70) Stasimon
What does an ode consist of, and what are they called? (p. 70) Alternating stanzas, the strophe and antistrophe
Where in relation to the stage did the Chorus perform? (p. 70) They performed in front of the stage in a circular area
What is a parados? (p. 70) The courses intro
Whose side did the Chorus take in Antigone, Creon’s or Antigone’s (p. 70)? Neither because it did not take any emotional involvement in the play and can see both sides of the argument
As the play opens, Antigone tells her sister, Ismene, that an edict has been placed over the city of Thebes. What is this edict, and who has commanded it? (14) A major conflict is between Antigone and her sister Ismene as well as Antigone and Creon
During Creon’s first speech, he explains that he is the new king of Thebes. According to him, how did he become king? (19) He is the closest relative of the fallen
Creon uses a metaphor to describe his country. What is it? What role does Creon see himself playing in the metaphor? (20) He describes his country as a boat, and he sees himself as the captaina
Creon discusses the edict and explains his reasons for it. What are his reasons? Do they seem to be valid? (20) He won’t honor the bad (Polynicies) the same as he honors the good. Yes they seem to be valid but not in the way he dis honors Polynicies
The Chorus tries to assure Creon that no one is foolish enough to disobey his edict and risk death. However, Creon seems unconvinced and says, “…but often profit has destroyed men through their hopes.” What does he mean by this statement? (21) Money has ruined men through their greed making them capable to be bribed.
What news does the guard bring to Creon? (22) Someone has buried the body by sprinkling dust on him.
How does the Chorus respond to this news? (23) The Chorus believes that the gods did it.
What tone does Creon take in response to the Chorus’ theory? (23 He gets angered by their view and calls them old and foolish.
What does Creon accuse the guards of? Does his accusation seem reasonable? (23) He has accused them of being bribed. No because there is no proof.
How does Creon feel about money? (23) He feels that it has been harmful to the world.
According to Creon, what will happen to the guards if they do not find the person who buried Polynices? Does this decision seem justified? (24) He says that they will be hanged. This is not justified because they have no clues or recourses necessary to find who it is.
As the Chorus begins Ode 1, what adjective does it use to describe humanity? (25) Humanity is described as wondrous
The Chorus describes the many ways in which humanity has triumphed over nature. However, there is one thing that humanity has not been able to conquer, according to the Chorus. What is it? (26) No human can conquer death
Who brings Antigone in front of Creon, and why? (26) The guard, and so she be punished for burying Polynicies.
When the guard explains the events that led up to the capture of Antigone, he begins by describing what he and the other guards did to the body of Polynices. What did they do, and why? (28) They brushed off the dust to unbury the body in order to catch the criminal
The guard recounts a strange and dramatic event that occurred just moments before Antigone returned to the site of the body. What was the event? (28) The cyclone gives her the cover to bury the body
According to the guard, how did Antigone react upon seeing the uncovered body of Polynices? What simile does he use to describe her reaction? (28) She wailed at the sight “like the shrill voice of a bird who sees her empty nest stripped of its nurslings.”
What did Antigone do to the body as the guards watched? (28) She poured out the libations and dust.
What is Antigone’s response when Creon asks her if she is guilty of burying Polynices ? (29 She does not deny it and asserts she did it.
How does Antigone explain to Creon her reason for breaking the law? (29) She says that his pronouncements cannot override gods’ laws and prescriptions
How does Antigone feel about dying? Use a quote from the play to support your answer. (29) She’s not afraid of death because “It is a blessing to die”.
What is Ismene’s involvement? (32-33) Creon thinks she’s guilty and she says that she is even though she is not.
What two topics is Ode 2 about? (36) Family curse and the power of Zeus
What advice does Creon give to Haemon concerning Antigone? (37) Never give up your wits for a woman
What reason does Creon give for having to kill Antigone? (38 He’s afraid that others will defy him if he doesn’t follow through with his punishment
According to Creon, “whomever the city _ must be _ in all things” and “no evil is worse than _.” (38) Chooses, obeyed, disobedience
According to Haemon, what are the people of the city saying about Antigone? (39 The people are supporting her
Haemon uses two metaphors to explain to his father that being stubborn is irrational and often harmful. What are these two metaphors? (39) The tree and the ship
How is Haemon’s view of the city different from Creon’s? (40) He sees it as the people city and Creon sees it as the monarch’s city.
Near the end of their argument, Creon forbids Haemon to marry Antigone, declaring, “You cannot marry her while alive.” Haemon replies with an ominous statement, which hints at something to come later in the plot. What does Haemon say, and what literary device does his statement demonstrate? (41) Foreshadowing her death and his
When Haemon leaves Creon at the end of their argument, what does he say? (42) You will never lay your eyes upon my face agian
Creon tells the Chorus that he will not kill Ismene but he will still punish Antigone. How does Creon intend to punish Antigone? Why does he decide on this particular type of punishment? (43) So will be not be technically murdering her but still killing her.
In Ode 3, the Chorus employs personification to describe love. Cite at least two examples from the ode in which the idea of love is given human characteristics. (43) “Love, unconquered in battle, Love who attacks wealth…”
How does the Chorus react upon seeing Antigone being led in by the guards? (43) They cry at the sight
Antigone claims that she has no friends and that no one will mourn her. Is this true? (45) no because she has her sister to mourn her
Who does Antigone blame for her impending death? (45) Her family’s curse
Antigone states that she would not have defied the edict if the dead person had been her husband or child. What is her reasoning behind this statement? Does it make sense? (47) Because she can have another child or just marry another man
Ode 4 describes three myths of others who have been buried alive in tombs. Name these three people. (48-49) Danae, Lycurgus, Cleopatra
tiresias receives omens from birds. How have the birds been acting recently? How else have Tiresias’ omens failed? (50) They were screaming and tearing at each other. The sacrifices won’t burn
Tiresias tells Creon, “The city is sick because of your counsel…” In what ways is the city sick, and how are the gods responding? (50) The city is polluted by the birds and dogs with carrion. They won’t accept the sacrifices prayers.
Tiresias advises Creon that the terrible situation can be remedied if Creon will stop being so stubborn. How does Creon respond to this advice? (51) He accuses Tiresias of being bribed and refuses to bury Polynicies.
What prediction does Tiresias make? According to him, why will Creon receive this punishment? (52-53) Haemon will die because the chorus sent a living soul below and kept a dead soul above
What does the Chorus have to say about Tiresias’ predictions? (53) He has never spoken falsely and is always right.
Whose advice does Creon finally take? What is he advised to do? (54) The Chorus’ advice, and he is advised to releases Antigone and bury Polynices.
What is Ode 5 about? (look at note 49 in the margin of p. 54) It is a prayer to Dionysus.
What news does the messenger bring to the Chorus? (56) Haemon had killed himself.
The messenger explains to Eurydice that, after burying Polynices, he and Creon went to the cave where Antigone had been taken. What did they see upon entering the cave? (58) Antigone is hanging dead and Haemon hanging at her neck.
What did Haemon do as Creon approached him, and why? (58) He tried to stab Creon out of anger.
Who does Creon blame for Haemon’s death? (59) He blames himself.
What news does the second messenger reveal to Creon? (61) Eurydice is dead.
According to the messenger, how did Eurydice die? What did she say immediately before her death? (61) She stabbed herself in the heart and cursed Creon.
What is Creon’s only wish at the end of the play? (62) He wishes to die.
Tell what the Chorus says in the last six lines of the play, in your own words. (62) Others can learn from our mistakes.
What is the punishment for disobeying the edict? (14) you would get stoned to death
Whose bride does Antigone say she will be? (44) Deaths
What point is Ismene trying to make in the following statement? By the words, “those below,” to whom might she be referring? …we are ruled by more powerful peopleAnd must obey them, even in more painful things.Therefore I ask forgiveness from those below, As I am forced to in these matters, and yieldTo those who walk with authority.For to do excessive things is nonsense. (15)
When Ismene refuses to help bury Polynices, Antigone angrily responds that she will do it herself. She then says: It seems fair to me to die doing it.I will lie dear to him, with one dear to me,A holy outlaw, since I must please thoseBelow a longer time than people here,For I shall lie there forever. You, though, Dishonor the gods’ commands, if you wish. (16)
Write out the line that show how Antigone now feels about Ismene. (17 antigone tells Ismene that she is now hated
9. The Chorus in a Greek drama is often made up of a group of people whose identity is relevant to the story being told. What group of people comprises the Chorus in Antigone? (19 14 old men
10. Sum up the content of the Parados by telling what it’s about. (17-19) Antigones brother died and he is not allowed to be burred by anyone. this edict was placed by creon creating the conflict
What myth is Antigone based upon? (Hint: It’s the name of Laius’ son–65) Oedipus
Why does Laius leave his baby on a mountain? (65) because it was foretold that is son would kill him
What happens to Laius? (65) She married her son
What becomes of Oedipus and his wife? (65 oedipus blinds himself and lives the rest of his life as a wanderer, and his wife kills herself
Who are Eteocles and Polynices? (65) brothers that kill each other
Who does Polynices bring with him when he returns to Thebes? (65 an army
Who wins the battle? (66 thebes
Who becomes the new king of Thebes? (66) Creon
What does Antigone ask Ismene to do, and how does Ismene respond? (15) she asked her to help bury the body and she said no
hamartia error, mistaken judgement or misstep through which the hero succumbs to misfortune; this error is not necessarily a flaw in character but it does move the character from happiness to misery.
1. A major conflict between _____ and _____ as well as between _____ and _____ is revealed in the Prologue. Creon and Antigone, Ismene and Antigone
In the short paragraph that describes the setting of the play, the reader learns of the events that led to the recent deaths of Eteocles and Polynices. Why did the two brothers kill each other? They both wanted the power to be king
As the play opens, Antigone tells her sister, Ismene, that an edict has been placed over the city of Thebes. What is this edict, and who has commanded it? No one can bury Polynices, Creon announced it
What is the punishment for disobeying the edict? Death by public stoning
What does Antigone ask Ismene to do, and how does Ismene respond? To bury the corpse of Polynices, Ismene thinks Antigone is crazy and shouldn’t do it
In her response to Antigone’s request, Ismene alludes to the tragic history of their family. According to Ismene, what happened to the sisters’ parents? They died
What point is Ismene trying to make in the following statement? By the words, “those below,” to whom might she be referring?…we are ruled by more powerful peopleAnd must obey them, even in more painful things.Therefore I ask forgiveness from those below, As I am forced to in these matters, and yieldTo those who walk with authority.For to do excessive things is nonsense. She is questioning Antigone’s plan, and she is talking about her dead parents
When Ismene refuses to help bury Polynices, Antigone angrily responds that she will do it herself. She then says:It seems fair to me to die doing it.I will lie dear to him, with one dear to me,A holy outlaw, since I must please thoseBelow a longer time than people here,For I shall lie there forever. You, though, Dishonor the gods’ commands, if you wish. According to her reasoning, why is Antigone willing to die for burying her brother? Because she wants to die next to her family and she will be there dead forever
Write the line that show how Antigone now feels about Ismene. “Then go, if this seems best to you, but know that your friends truly love you, however foolish”
The Chorus uses figurative language to describe the Argive army as it attacked Thebes. What simile does the Chorus use to describe the invading army? With a wing as white as snow
The Chorus in a Greek drama is often made up of a group of people whose identity is relevant to the story being told. What group of people comprises the Chorus in Antigone? 14 old men
During Creon’s first speech, he explains that he is the new king of Thebes. According to him, how did he become king? Because he is the closest relative to Oedipus
Creon uses a metaphor to describe his country. What is it? What role does Creon see himself playing in the metaphor? My country is safety itself, and only when she is upright can our sailing find friends. The country is a boat and he is the captain of the ship.
Creon discusses the edict and explains his reasons for it. What are his reasons? Do they seem to be valid? He says whoever is friendly to the city will in life and death be equally honored by him and they seem to be valid
The Chorus tries to assure Creon that no one is foolish enough to disobey his edict and risk death. However, Creon seems unconvinced and says, “…but often profit has destroyed men through their hopes.” What does he mean by this statement? People have convinced other people to die for their dreams
What news does the guard bring to Creon? Someone has buried the corpse and disappeared
How does the Chorus respond to this news? They say it was god’s work
How does Creon respond to the Chorus’ theory? He gets very angry
What does Creon accuse the guards of? Does his accusation seem reasonable? He accuses them of being bribed
How does Creon feel about money? Write the lines from the play that support your answer. He thinks it creates evil,”It’s destroyed even cities, it has expelled men from their homes; it teaches the minds of honest men to deviate and take up foul things. It has shown men how to be villainous and to know every sort of godlessness
According to Creon, what will happen to the guards if they do not find the person who buried Polynices? Does this decision seem justified? Unless they find the person who buried the body, they will be hanged alive
As the Chorus begins Ode 1, what adjective does it use to describe humanity? Wondrous
The Chorus describes the many ways in which humanity has triumphed over nature. However, there is one thing that humanity has not been able to conquer, according to the Chorus. What is it? Immortality
Who brings Antigone in front of Creon, and why? A guard, because Creon told the guards to look for the person who buried the body
When the guard explains the events that led up to the capture of Antigone, he begins by describing what he and the other guards did to the body of Polynices. What did they do, and why? They brushed off all the dust and left it there because it smelled very bad
The guard recounts a strange and dramatic event that occurred just moments before Antigone returned to the site of the body. What was the event? A cyclone lifted up from the ground in a storm of dirt
According to the guard, how did Antigone react upon seeing the uncovered body of Polynices? What simile does he use to describe her reaction? She was wailing bitterly like the shrill voice of a bird who sees her empty nest, stripped of its nurslings
What did Antigone do to the body as the guards watched? She covered the corpse in libations
What is Antigone’s response when Creon asks her if she is guilty of burying Polynices in defiance of the edict? She admits to being guilty
How does Antigone explain to Creon her reason for breaking the law? She says it was the gods law to bury the body
How does Antigone feel about dying? Use a quote from the play to support your answer. She feels that without Polynices buying buried, she is living a life of sorrow, so if she were to die, it wouldn’t matter. “Anyone who lives a life of sorrow as I do, how could they not count a blessing to die?”
What is Ismene’s involvement? She says she did it too even though she did not do it
What two topics is Ode 2 about? It is about praising Zeus and the family’s curse
What advice does Creon give to Haemon concerning Antigone? Never give up your wits for a woman because of the pleasure
What reason does Creon give for having to kill Antigone? No evil is worse than disobedience
According to Creon, “whomever the city chooses must be _________________________” and “no evil is worse than _________________________.” Obeyed, disobedience
According to Haemon, what are the people of the city saying about Antigone? The city weeps for her
Haemon uses two metaphors to explain to his father that being stubborn is irrational and often harmful. What are these two metaphors? Whoever thinks that he is the only one who can think or use his tongue or soul and these men, when you open them up, are seen to be hollow
How is Haemon’s view of the city different from Creon’s? He says the city does not belong to one man
Near the end of their argument, Creon forbids Haemon to marry Antigone, declaring, “You cannot marry her while alive.” Haemon replies with an ominous statement, which hints at something to come later in the plot. What does Haemon say, and what literary device does his statement demonstrate? Then she will die and, dying destroys another, foreshadowing
When Haemon leaves Creon at the end of their argument, what does he say? Antigone will not die beside me and you will never see me again
Creon tells the Chorus that he will not kill Ismene but he will still punish Antigone. How does Creon intend to punish Antigone? Why does he decide on this particular type of punishment? He will leave her on an island, so that the city will escape all pollution
In Ode 3, the Chorus employs personification to describe love. Cite at least two examples from the ode in which the idea of love is given human characteristics. A. Love, unconquered in battleB. Love, who attacks wealth
How does the Chorus react upon seeing Antigone being led in by the guards? They cry
Whose bride does Antigone say she will be? The bride of death
Antigone claims that she has no friends and that no one will mourn her. Is this true? No, she has Ismene
Who does Antigone blame for her impending death? She blames her brother
Antigone states that she would not have defied the edict if the dead person had been her husband or child. What is her reasoning behind this statement? Does it make sense? Because why would she bury it if it was not part of her family, yes it makes sense
Ode 4 describes three myths of others who have been buried alive in tombs. Name these three people. Lycurgus, Danae, Cleopatra (mother of Phineas’s sons)
Tiresias receives omens from birds. How have the birds been acting recently? How else have Tiresias’ omens failed? Tiresias is a very famous blind prophet, he usually gets omens from the birds.The birds have been screaming with evil. Tiresias’ omens have also failed because there was no fire burning for people to make sacrifices to the gods
Tiresias tells Creon, “The city is sick because of your counsel…” In what ways is the city sick, and how are the gods responding? The altars and hearths are defiled by birds and dogs with carrion (flesh) from the corpse of the unlucky son of Oedipis (Polynesis).They are spreading rotting flesh around the city and making everyone sick. Gods refuse people’s offerings and prayers
Tiresias advises Creon that the terrible situation can be remedied if Creon will stop being so stubborn. How does Creon respond to this advice? “Go ahead, old man; all of you can shoot your arrows at me like archers at targets. I am not even left untouched by the seers! By your kind I was brought and sold and carried home a long time ago.” He doesn’t care and refuses to bury Polynesis’s body. Says that he was bribed and that is why he is saying all that nonsense.
What prediction does Tiresias make? According to him, why will Creon receive this punishment? Haemon is going to die (an exchange, corpse for corpse). This is because he didn’t bury Polynesis (the dead person), but he did bury Antigone (who is alive). The gods are not happy with this
What does the Chorus have to say about Tiresias’ predictions? He has never been wrong, he is always right
Whose advice does Creon finally take? What is he advised to do? He takes the chorus’s advice to release Antigone and bury Polynesis
What is Ode 5 about? It anticipates that Creon will remedy the situation and save the day. It is a prayer to Dionisis
What news does the messenger bring to the Chorus? Haemon killed himself
The messenger explains to Eurydice (Creon’s Wife, mother of Haemon) that, after burying Polynices, he and Creon went to the cave where Antigone had been taken. What did they see upon entering the cave? Antigone hanged herself and Haemon was holding her”We did observe; and in the last part of the tomb, we saw her hanged by the neck, fastened by a noose of fine linen, and him wrapped around her, clinging to her around the waist, bewailing the destruction of his lost pride and the deeds of his father and his unhappy marriage bed.”
What did Haemon do as Creon approached him, and why? He spits at Creon and then tries to stab him, but misses. Then Haemon stabs himself
Who does Creon blame for Haemon’s death? Himself
What news does the second messenger reveal to Creon? Creon’s wife is dead
According to the messenger, how did Eurydice die? What did she say immediately before her death? She stabbed herself in the heart. She curses him
What is Creon’s only wish at the end of the play? He wishes to die. The Chorus is saying that his punishment is saying that he has to remember what he did and live with it
Tell what the Chorus says in the last six lines of the play, in your own words. It is saying that knowledge is the most powerful thing you can have, but never use it for evil uses. It is also saying that the older we get, the wiser we get; and the more knowledge we get.
daughter of Oedipus who honored her brother Antigone
Who wrote ANTIGONE? Sophocles
Who was engaged to Antigone? Haimon
Who is Creon’s wife? Eurydice
Who is the god of wine and fertility? Dionysos
Who is the blind prophet? Teiresias
Who is too frightened to bury her brother? Ismene
What monster did Oedipus defeat by answering the riddle? Sphinx
Who is Antigone’s uncle? Creon
Which brother received a proper burial? Eteocles
Which brother did not receive a proper burial? Polyneices
Which two characters are foils? Ismene and Antigone (Foils are characters whose differences are highlighted through their contrasts.)
the most powerful god Zeus
city where Oedipus grew up Corinth
city where Oedipus marries Jocasta and where most of the action in this play occurs Thebes
Greek drama had its origins in religious ritual for the Greek god ? Name that god. Dionysos
Why did the messenger fear telling Creon about the burial of Polyneices? He feared Creon and how Creon might punish him with death.
What is Creon’s hamartia? his pride or hubris
How does Antigone die? She hangs herself with her wedding veil.
How/why does Haimon die? He kills himself b/c he finds Antigone dead.
What is the irony of Teiresias’ warning to Creon? Teiresias, although blind, has insight into the future while Creon, who has his sight, lacks insight and knowledge.
What does Oedipus do when he finds out he has killed his father and married his mother? He gouges out his eyes.
The main conflict in the play is what? law of the gods vs. the law of humans or listening to one’s conscience vs. listening to authority
Why does Ismene not want to bury her brother? She says, “We are only women,” and she does not want to go against man’s laws.
Why does Antigone want to bury her brother? Because her conscience tells her it is the right thing to do. All family members deserve an honorable burial. She is not afraid to go against man’s laws b/c she feels the gods’ laws deserve respect.
How does Antigone bury her brother? Merely throws dirt over his body
The penalty for defying the King’s decree not to bury Polyneices is what? Death by stoning
What was the basic purpose of the chorus? to comment on the actions in the play
What is Creon’s greatest fear? looking weak, especially since it was a woman who defied him
What is Creon’s punishment for his actions in the play? He loses his son, niece, and wife (they all die).
How did the two brothers, Etocles and Polyneices, die? The two were on opposite sides in the recent civil war
What is King Creon’s decree? Polyneices was considered a traitor by King Creon for attacking the city of Thebes. Polyneices’ body was not permitted to be buried, and to pass on to the Underworld
What does Antigone plan to do? What is her justification? She plans to disobey Creon, bury her brother Polyneices. She believes that God’s laws are more important than man’s laws
What is Ismene’s reaction to Anitgone’s plan? She is too afraid of recrimination to help Antigone
What city des the play take place in? Thebes
What news does the sentry bring Creon? Someone has secretly covered the body of Polyneies with just enough dirt to be considered as buried by the gods. His sould will now move to the Underworld
According to Ode 1, what is the most wonderful of all the world’s wonders? Man is the most wonderful of all the world’s wonders
What are man’s accomplishments according to Ode 1? intelligence and statecraft
Who has the sentry captured and brought before the King Creon? The sentry brought Antigone, the king’s niece, to Creon
How does Ismene react once Antigone is caught? And hows does Antigone respond to Ismene? She now thinks she did the right thing and wants to be punished with her. Antigone rejects her offer.
WHat is Haemon’s initial response when his father asks how he feels about the king’s decision to execute Antigone? Haemon says that he supports and obeys his father’s decisions
How does the city feel about Antigone’s crime according to Haemon? And what does he, then, advise his father to do? Haemon claims that the city of Thebes does not view Antigone as a criminal. He tells Creon a resonable king would listen to the opinions of his citizens
How does Creon react to Haemon’s advice? He is enraged, and accuses Haemon of being influenced by his love for his fiance, Antigone
Describe Creon’s death sentence for Antigone Creon will have Antigone locked in a stone vault out in the wilderness. She will be given some provisions of food.
According to Ode 3, what is it that “even the pure immortals cannot escape?” love
Besides Creon and herself, Antigone and the Chrous attach blame for her terrible misfortune to whom? She blames the sins of her father, Oedipus
What does Teiresius claim to be the cause of the gods’ reaction to their offereings? Creon has brought about the anger of the gods with his decreee about Polyneices
What is Creon’s reaction to Teiresias’ message Creon is angry eith Teiresias and refuses to yield
Creon insults Teiresius by accusing all prophets love? Creon claims that all prohpets love gold.
What advice does the Choragos give to King Creon once Teiresias leaves? THe Choragoes advises Creon to free Antigone from the vault, and build a tomb for Polyneices in order to appease the gods’ anger
How does King Creon react to the advise of the Choragus? Creon finally admits to his pride and says that he himself will go to set Antigone free
THe Choragos and the Chorus pray to which “God of many names”? Dionysus
Describe what Creon saw when he looked through the crevice into Antigone’s tomb Creon saw Haemon weeping over Antigone’s dead body. She has hung herself with her own veil
Describe Haemon’s reaction when Creon entered Antigone’s tomb. Haemon spat in his father’s face and then he drew his sword against Creon. When he missed in his attempt to kill the king, he turned th sword on himself. He died with Antigone in his arms
What happened after the messenger relayed the news about Haemon and Antigone to Eurydice? Eurydice walked silently into the house, went to the alter, and killed herself.
Theatre brining a myth to life; alternative to sacred books
Dionysus the god the theatre and its festivals were dedicated to
three genres satyr play, comedy, and tragedy
Satry play satyr- goat- man attendant to Dionysus; content not known, was bawdy
comedy delivered in terms of Lampoon
Lampoon criticized with sarcasm
Reductio ad absurdum reduction to absurdity; a stupid idea taken literally
Tragedy some topics are too serious to lampoon
hubris excersise pride
Chorus They want the hero to act on his own pride
Catastrophe the outcome/ end of the tragic action
tragic morals remember who? What he did? His pride destroyed him, don’t be like him
inference name of judgment abouut a character based on words and actions
traits, values, motivations the three elements of character analysis
Antigone daughter of Oedipus
Ismene daugher of Oedipus
Creon king of Thebes, uncle of Antigone and Ismene
Haemon Creon’s son, engaged to Antigone
Eurydice wife of Creon
Teiresias a blind prophet
Polyneices brother of Antigone and Ismene
1. A major conflict between _____ and _____ as well as between _____ and _____ is revealed in the Prologue. Creon and Antigone, Ismene and Antigone
In the short paragraph that describes the setting of the play, the reader learns of the events that led to the recent deaths of Eteocles and Polynices. Why did the two brothers kill each other? They both wanted the power to be king
As the play opens, Antigone tells her sister, Ismene, that an edict has been placed over the city of Thebes. What is this edict, and who has commanded it? No one can bury Polynices, Creon announced it
What is the punishment for disobeying the edict? Death by public stoning
What does Antigone ask Ismene to do, and how does Ismene respond? To bury the corpse of Polynices, Ismene thinks Antigone is crazy and shouldn’t do it
In her response to Antigone’s request, Ismene alludes to the tragic history of their family. According to Ismene, what happened to the sisters’ parents? They died
What point is Ismene trying to make in the following statement? By the words, “those below,” to whom might she be referring?…we are ruled by more powerful peopleAnd must obey them, even in more painful things.Therefore I ask forgiveness from those below, As I am forced to in these matters, and yieldTo those who walk with authority.For to do excessive things is nonsense. She is questioning Antigone’s plan, and she is talking about her dead parents
When Ismene refuses to help bury Polynices, Antigone angrily responds that she will do it herself. She then says:It seems fair to me to die doing it.I will lie dear to him, with one dear to me,A holy outlaw, since I must please thoseBelow a longer time than people here,For I shall lie there forever. You, though, Dishonor the gods’ commands, if you wish. According to her reasoning, why is Antigone willing to die for burying her brother? Because she wants to die next to her family and she will be there dead forever
Write the line that show how Antigone now feels about Ismene. “Then go, if this seems best to you, but know that your friends truly love you, however foolish”
The Chorus uses figurative language to describe the Argive army as it attacked Thebes. What simile does the Chorus use to describe the invading army? With a wing as white as snow
The Chorus in a Greek drama is often made up of a group of people whose identity is relevant to the story being told. What group of people comprises the Chorus in Antigone? 14 old men
During Creon’s first speech, he explains that he is the new king of Thebes. According to him, how did he become king? Because he is the closest relative to Oedipus
Creon uses a metaphor to describe his country. What is it? What role does Creon see himself playing in the metaphor? My country is safety itself, and only when she is upright can our sailing find friends. The country is a boat and he is the captain of the ship.
Creon discusses the edict and explains his reasons for it. What are his reasons? Do they seem to be valid? He says whoever is friendly to the city will in life and death be equally honored by him and they seem to be valid
The Chorus tries to assure Creon that no one is foolish enough to disobey his edict and risk death. However, Creon seems unconvinced and says, “…but often profit has destroyed men through their hopes.” What does he mean by this statement? People have convinced other people to die for their dreams
What news does the guard bring to Creon? Someone has buried the corpse and disappeared
How does the Chorus respond to this news? They say it was god’s work
How does Creon respond to the Chorus’ theory? He gets very angry
What does Creon accuse the guards of? Does his accusation seem reasonable? He accuses them of being bribed
How does Creon feel about money? Write the lines from the play that support your answer. He thinks it creates evil,”It’s destroyed even cities, it has expelled men from their homes; it teaches the minds of honest men to deviate and take up foul things. It has shown men how to be villainous and to know every sort of godlessness
According to Creon, what will happen to the guards if they do not find the person who buried Polynices? Does this decision seem justified? Unless they find the person who buried the body, they will be hanged alive
As the Chorus begins Ode 1, what adjective does it use to describe humanity? Wondrous
The Chorus describes the many ways in which humanity has triumphed over nature. However, there is one thing that humanity has not been able to conquer, according to the Chorus. What is it? Immortality
Who brings Antigone in front of Creon, and why? A guard, because Creon told the guards to look for the person who buried the body
When the guard explains the events that led up to the capture of Antigone, he begins by describing what he and the other guards did to the body of Polynices. What did they do, and why? They brushed off all the dust and left it there because it smelled very bad
The guard recounts a strange and dramatic event that occurred just moments before Antigone returned to the site of the body. What was the event? A cyclone lifted up from the ground in a storm of dirt
According to the guard, how did Antigone react upon seeing the uncovered body of Polynices? What simile does he use to describe her reaction? She was wailing bitterly like the shrill voice of a bird who sees her empty nest, stripped of its nurslings
What did Antigone do to the body as the guards watched? She covered the corpse in libations
What is Antigone’s response when Creon asks her if she is guilty of burying Polynices in defiance of the edict? She admits to being guilty
How does Antigone explain to Creon her reason for breaking the law? She says it was the gods law to bury the body
How does Antigone feel about dying? Use a quote from the play to support your answer. She feels that without Polynices buying buried, she is living a life of sorrow, so if she were to die, it wouldn’t matter. “Anyone who lives a life of sorrow as I do, how could they not count a blessing to die?”
What is Ismene’s involvement? She says she did it too even though she did not do it
What two topics is Ode 2 about? It is about praising Zeus and the family’s curse
What advice does Creon give to Haemon concerning Antigone? Never give up your wits for a woman because of the pleasure
What reason does Creon give for having to kill Antigone? No evil is worse than disobedience
According to Creon, “whomever the city chooses must be _________________________” and “no evil is worse than _________________________.” Obeyed, disobedience
According to Haemon, what are the people of the city saying about Antigone? The city weeps for her
Haemon uses two metaphors to explain to his father that being stubborn is irrational and often harmful. What are these two metaphors? Whoever thinks that he is the only one who can think or use his tongue or soul and these men, when you open them up, are seen to be hollow
How is Haemon’s view of the city different from Creon’s? He says the city does not belong to one man
Near the end of their argument, Creon forbids Haemon to marry Antigone, declaring, “You cannot marry her while alive.” Haemon replies with an ominous statement, which hints at something to come later in the plot. What does Haemon say, and what literary device does his statement demonstrate? Then she will die and, dying destroys another, foreshadowing
When Haemon leaves Creon at the end of their argument, what does he say? Antigone will not die beside me and you will never see me again
Creon tells the Chorus that he will not kill Ismene but he will still punish Antigone. How does Creon intend to punish Antigone? Why does he decide on this particular type of punishment? He will leave her on an island, so that the city will escape all pollution
In Ode 3, the Chorus employs personification to describe love. Cite at least two examples from the ode in which the idea of love is given human characteristics. A. Love, unconquered in battleB. Love, who attacks wealth
How does the Chorus react upon seeing Antigone being led in by the guards? They cry
Whose bride does Antigone say she will be? The bride of death
Antigone claims that she has no friends and that no one will mourn her. Is this true? No, she has Ismene
Who does Antigone blame for her impending death? She blames her brother
Antigone states that she would not have defied the edict if the dead person had been her husband or child. What is her reasoning behind this statement? Does it make sense? Because why would she bury it if it was not part of her family, yes it makes sense
Ode 4 describes three myths of others who have been buried alive in tombs. Name these three people. Lycurgus, Danae, Cleopatra (mother of Phineas’s sons)
Tiresias receives omens from birds. How have the birds been acting recently? How else have Tiresias’ omens failed? Tiresias is a very famous blind prophet, he usually gets omens from the birds.The birds have been screaming with evil. Tiresias’ omens have also failed because there was no fire burning for people to make sacrifices to the gods
Tiresias tells Creon, “The city is sick because of your counsel…” In what ways is the city sick, and how are the gods responding? The altars and hearths are defiled by birds and dogs with carrion (flesh) from the corpse of the unlucky son of Oedipis (Polynesis).They are spreading rotting flesh around the city and making everyone sick. Gods refuse people’s offerings and prayers
Tiresias advises Creon that the terrible situation can be remedied if Creon will stop being so stubborn. How does Creon respond to this advice? “Go ahead, old man; all of you can shoot your arrows at me like archers at targets. I am not even left untouched by the seers! By your kind I was brought and sold and carried home a long time ago.” He doesn’t care and refuses to bury Polynesis’s body. Says that he was bribed and that is why he is saying all that nonsense.
What prediction does Tiresias make? According to him, why will Creon receive this punishment? Haemon is going to die (an exchange, corpse for corpse). This is because he didn’t bury Polynesis (the dead person), but he did bury Antigone (who is alive). The gods are not happy with this
What does the Chorus have to say about Tiresias’ predictions? He has never been wrong, he is always right
Whose advice does Creon finally take? What is he advised to do? He takes the chorus’s advice to release Antigone and bury Polynesis
What is Ode 5 about? It anticipates that Creon will remedy the situation and save the day. It is a prayer to Dionisis
What news does the messenger bring to the Chorus? Haemon killed himself
The messenger explains to Eurydice (Creon’s Wife, mother of Haemon) that, after burying Polynices, he and Creon went to the cave where Antigone had been taken. What did they see upon entering the cave? Antigone hanged herself and Haemon was holding her”We did observe; and in the last part of the tomb, we saw her hanged by the neck, fastened by a noose of fine linen, and him wrapped around her, clinging to her around the waist, bewailing the destruction of his lost pride and the deeds of his father and his unhappy marriage bed.”
What did Haemon do as Creon approached him, and why? He spits at Creon and then tries to stab him, but misses. Then Haemon stabs himself
Who does Creon blame for Haemon’s death? Himself
What news does the second messenger reveal to Creon? Creon’s wife is dead
According to the messenger, how did Eurydice die? What did she say immediately before her death? She stabbed herself in the heart. She curses him
What is Creon’s only wish at the end of the play? He wishes to die. The Chorus is saying that his punishment is saying that he has to remember what he did and live with it
Tell what the Chorus says in the last six lines of the play, in your own words. It is saying that knowledge is the most powerful thing you can have, but never use it for evil uses. It is also saying that the older we get, the wiser we get; and the more knowledge we get.

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