Antigone

Greek Tragedy Terms Tragedy A drama or literary work in which the main character is brought to ruin or suffers extreme sorrow, especially as a consequence of a tragic flaw, moral weakness, or inability to cope with unfavorable circumstances
Greek Tragedy Terms Tragic Hero A tragic hero is a person of noble birth who’s inevitable doom is caused by a tragic flaw (Creon)
Greek Tragedy Terms Tragic Flaw A character trait that ultimately is the cause of a character’s downfall (Creon’s hubris)
Greek Tragedy Terms Prologue An opening of a story that establishes the setting and gives background details
Greek Tragedy Terms Parados The first choral passage in Greek drama
Greek Tragedy Terms Ode A choric song of classical Greece, often accompanied by a dance and performed at a public festival or as part of a drama
Greek Tragedy Terms Strophe The part of an ancient Greek choral ode sung by the chorus when moving from right to left
Greek Tragedy Terms Antistrophe The part of an ancient Greek choral ode answering a previous strophe, sung by the chorus when returning from left to right
Greek Tragedy Terms Paean A prayer of thanksgiving to a god at the play’s end(Dionysus in Antigone)
Greek Tragedy Terms Exodos The play’s last scene; usually contains moral lesson
Greek Tragedy Terms Hubris Excessive pride or arrogance; downfall of the tragic hero
Greek Tragedy Terms Catharsis A release of emotional tension from the audience
Characters Antigone Wishes to bury her brother and obey gods, hangs herself, but her mission is accomplished as Polynieces receives an honorable burialTraits: Proud, strong, foolish, determined, headstrong, bold, defiant
Characters Ismene Considers Antigone foolish at first, but later wants to be punished equally with Antigone but Antigone does not allow herTraits: Unsure, foolish, abiding, cautious, hesistant
Characters Creon King of Thebes, punishes Antigone for disobeying his laws, tragic hero, his family is killed because of his tragic flaw and poor decisionsTraits: Power-hungry, stupid, excessively proud, regretful
Characters Haimon First obeys his father, then suggests that he does not punish girls and split power, then criticizes his rule by fear. Kills himself because he is saddened by the death of Antingone whom he is in love withTraits: Loving, angry, intelligent, obedient/defiant, passionate
Characters Eurydice Haimon’s mother and Creon’s wife. Kills herself after learning of Haimon’s death and curses Creon for death of her sonsTraits: Devastated
Characters Sentry Discovers Antigone burying Polyneices and brings her to Creon. Traits: Highly energized, wise, eloquent
Characters Teireseas and Boy Blind oracle who delivers prophecy to Creon, is insulted by Creon. Says Creon must free Antigone, bury Polyneices, or consequences will ensue on family/kingship. Ironically blind despite fortune-telling power, uses a young boy as an assistant to help him see.Traits: Powerful, wise, blind
Characters Chorus Group of fifteen elders that serve as advisors to the King, yet used by Sophocles to explain prominent themes in the story through the Odes. Initially they were obedient Creon, yet at the end of the story they had power over him.
Characters Choragos Leader of the Chorus.
Prologue/Parados Why are A & I arguing? Antingone wants to bury Polyneices despite laws, Ismene believes that she is foolish. Antingone believes that divine laws of the gods are more significant than civil laws created by man. Ismene is too scared of punishment and inability as a woman to fight alongside Antigone
Prologue/Parados How are A and I alike? How are they different? Similar: Sisters born into royalty- both have strong relationships with other members of the family. Both are saddened and hurt by loss of their two brothersDifferent: Antigone is compelled to avenge Polynieces despite possible consequences because of her defiant nature, while Ismene hesitates because of her cautious nature
Prologue/Parados The Chorus describes the battle between the two sons, what does this do for the audience. This an exposition that gives background to the plot.
Prologue/Parados What do they say the city is looking forward to? A time of peace and celebration after the war (dramatic irony because Thebes is unaware of what Antigone wants to do)
Scene 1 How would you describe Creon at this point? Creon has gained the throne upon the death of Polynieces and Creon Ignorant, rule by fear/with an “iron fist”, paranoid, power-hungry.
Scene 1 Why does Creon not allow P to be buried? Creon says that P was a traitor because he attacked Thebes and therefore does not deserve an honorable burial.
Scene 1 How does the chorus react to this? Obediently agrees to whatever Creon says out of fear; they are “on the same page”
Ode 1 Describes the limitations and wonders of man
Scene 2 How can the audience picture what happened? The sentry explains what happened to Creon
Scene 2 How does Antigone defend her actions? She says that she was obeying the laws of the gods and is proud of her actions.
Scene 2`Who does Choragos side with? Who do they compare Abtigone to? Creon because Choragos is afraid of him.Her father, Oedious.
Scene 2 How has Ismene changed? Ismene now wants to die alongside her sister because she regrets not helping her bury Polyneices.
Scene 2 How does Antigone treat her? Antigone abandons her and does not allow her to steal any credit.
Ode 2 The Chorus sings an ode lamenting the fortunes of the house of Oedipus, which once again stands mired in death and sorrow. The Chorus prays to Zeus, guardian of kinship ties, whose law prevails above all others.
Scene 3 How does Haimon attempt to persuade his father? He uses Ethos, Pathos, and Logos. First obeys his father, then suggests that he does not punish girls and split power, then criticizes his rule by fear.
Scene 3 How does Creon react to the arguments? He says that he should not listen to him because he is older than him.
Scene 3 What attitude does Creon take towards women? Creon has a condescending attitude towards women because he criticizes Haimon for defending a WOMAN
Scene 3 What does the Choragos urge Creon and Haimon to do? He tells the King to listen to what Haimon tells him to do but says that Haimon must listen to his father.
Ode 3 The first ode is about human strengths and limitations; the second fate and vengeance of the gods; the third about the power of love.
Scene 4 What comfort does the chorus offer Antigone in this scene? The chorus offers respect for her bravery and her loyalty to obey the gods, however, they do not allow her to compare herself to Niobe or blame her fate on her father.
Scene 4 As Antigone face her death, does she seem in any way changed from the way she has been in previous scenes? As Antigone faces her death, she starts feeling depressed and sad that she is leaving the world
Scene 4 Antigone is not to be stoned to her death as originally planned. What is the punishment now? The punishment is she will be taken to a small stone room supplied with only a little food and water
Scene 4 How does this punishment suit Creon? Creon say that there is no blood on his hands. With this punishment, Creon is not directly murdering Antigone and is therefore wishes to not anger the gods as much and free himself of his guilt.
Ode 4 How are the fates in these myths similar to that of Antigone’s? They all die tragically
Scene 5 What does Teireseas remind Creon of how he became king? Teiresias reminds him that he is a king because of him.
Scene 5 Why does Creon finally give in? He is scared of Tereisias’ threats of him losing his kingship and members of his own family dying.
Scene 5 What part does Choragos play in his decision? They remind him that Teiresias has never been wrong.
Scene 5 How has Chorus and Choragos changed throughout the play. Gradually, they have become less and less scared of the king and have gone from agreeing to whatever he says, to giving him commands and advice
Scene 5 Of what does Creon accuse Teireseas? Taking bribes.
Scene 5 How has Creon shown that he is guilty of pride? He does not change his mind about the punishment.He does not allow others to rule.He insults Teireseas.
Scene Synopses Prologue Summary -Antigone says she intends to bury Polynieces despite Creon because it is the will of the gods-Ismene does not agree because she fears civil laws and the fact that they are women
Scene Synopses Scene 1 Summary -Creon inherits the throne-His ego and pride for being the ruler is apparent, believes people are conspiring for money/power-Creon declares that Polyneices will not be buried, Chorus is obedient to him-Sentry arrives with the news-
Exodus How does Sophocles tell us what happened to Antigone, Haimon, and Eurydice? The news of the deaths is brought by the messenger.
Exodus What has happened to Antigone? Antigone hung herself using her bridal veil.
Exodus What has happened to Haimon? Haimon, upon finding Antigone, stabs himself after attempting to kill Creon.
Exodus How is Teiresias’ prophecy from scene 5 fulfilled in the Exodus? In scene 5, Teiresias warns Creon that he “shall pay back / Corpse for corpse, flesh of your own flesh.” This prophecy is fulfilled when his wife and son kill themselves.
Exodus What does Creon finally recognize about himself. At the end of the play, Creon takes finally takes responsibility for the cause of his stubbornness and hubris, saying “I alone am guilty.”
Exodus Creon’s Tragic Flaw Creon’s tragic flaw is his stubbornness and his hubris. His stubbornness is displayed in his unwillingness to change Antigone’s punishment. His excessive pride is displayed in his inability to take advice from his son or the Thebans. He is also embarrassed when he figures out that Haimon has been swayed by a woman.
Exodus Tragic Heros A tragic hero is a great or virtuous character in a dramatic tragedy who is destined for downfall, suffering, or defeat. Their downfall is the result of a tragic flaw, in Creon’s case, stubbornness and hubris.
Exodus Creon as Tragic Hero Creon becomes the ruler of Thebes after the deaths if Eteocles and Polyneices, acquiring great power and respect. Due to his stubbornness and hubris, he sentences Antigone to death for trying to bury her brother, causing the deaths of his son and wife and his own downfall.
Exodus What has happened to Eurydice? Having heard the news of the deaths of Haimon (her son) and Antigone, she returns to the palace where she stabs herself in the heart.

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